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2008 Vol. 28, No. 12
Published: 2008-12-26

 
       光谱学与光谱分析
2737 Study on the Back Contact Performances of CdTe Solar Cells by XPS
SONG Hui-jin1, ZHENG Jia-gui1, FENG Liang-huan1, ZHANG Jing-quan1, LI Wei1, LI Bing1, WU li-li1, LEI Zhi1, YAN Qiang2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2737-04
The metal materials with high work function should be used as the back electrode of CdTe solar cells. In the present paper, the back contact performances of CdTe solar cells with Au film and Ni film, respectively, were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). After exfoliating the back electrode film, it was found that Au on the surface of ZnTe/ZnTe∶Cu complex back contact layer is in the form of Au atoms and the concentration and depth of Ni diffusing into the ZnTe/ZnTe∶Cu back contact layer are higher than that of Au. What’s more, some Ni changes into Ni+x ion which leads to rich Te ions in ZnTe/ZnTe∶Cu back contact layer. So the diffusing concentration is increased, which makes the characters of CdTe improved. In the samples, the displacement of either Te or Zn peak position changes little, which indicates that both Te and Zn do not change in the modality.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2737-2740 [Abstract] ( 186 ) PDF (1147 KB)  ( 543 )
2741 Determination of Electric Field Distribution in Dielectric Barrier Surface Glow Discharge by Spectroscopic Method
LI Xue-chen, JIA Peng-ying, LIU Zhi-hui, LI Li-chun, DONG Li-fang
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2741-04
In the present paper, stable glow discharges were obtained in air at low pressure with a dielectric barrier surface discharge device. Light emission from the discharge was detected by photomultiplier tubes and the research results show that the light signal exhibited one discharge pulse per half cycle of the applied voltage. The light pulses were asymmetric between the positive half cycle and the negative one of the applied voltage. The images of the glow surface discharge were processed by Photoshop software and the results indicate that the emission intensity remained almost constant for different places with the same distance from the powered electrode, while the emission intensity decreased with the distance from the powered electrode increasing. In dielectric barrier discharge, net electric field is determined by the applied voltage and the wall charges accumulated on the dielectric layer during the discharge, and consequently, it is important to obtain information about the net electric field distribution. For this purpose, optical emission spectroscopy method was used. The distribution of the net electric field can be deduced from the intensity ratio of spectral line 391.4 nm emitted from the first negative system of N+2(B 2Σ+uX 2Σ+g) to 337.1 nm emitted from the second positive system of N2(C 3ΠuB 3Πg). The research results show that the electric field near the powered electric field is higher than at the edge of the discharge. These experimental results are very important for numerical study and industrial application of the surface discharge.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2741-2744 [Abstract] ( 1175 ) PDF (1012 KB)  ( 470 )
2745 Diagnosis of the DC Glow Discharge Plasma Generated Inside a Metallic Tube by Optical Emission Spectroscopy
YIN Li-yong,WEN Xiao-qiong*,WANG De-zhen
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2745-04
Optical emission spectroscopy method was used to diagnose the normal dc glow discharge plasma generated inside a metallic tube. The active species in the plasma were identified. The electron excitation temperature in the plasma was determined by the Boltzmann plot method. The vibrational temperature of N2 molecules in the plasma was determined by analyzing the emission spectrum lines of the N2 second positive system (C 3ΠuB 3Πg).The dependence of the electron excitation temperature and molecular vibrational temperature on the pressure was investigated. The experiment results show that in the Ar60%+N240% glow discharge plasma at 20 Pa, the active species are the Ar atoms, Ar ions, second positive series of N2 transitions and the first negative series of B 2Π2uX 2Σ+g transitons; the electron excitation temperature is (15 270±250) K, and the vibrational temperature of N2 molecules is (3 290±100) K. The electron excitation temperature and molecular vibrational temperature decrease with increasing pressure. These results would give some valuable guide to the study on inner surface modification of metallic tubes.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2745-2748 [Abstract] ( 2555 ) PDF (856 KB)  ( 442 )
2749 The Precise Assignment of Whispering Gallery Modes for Lasing Spectra Emitting from Cylindrical Micro-Cavities
WANG Dong-lin, JIANG Nan, JIANG Li-qun, ZHANG Zhen-li, PU Xiao-yun*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2749-05
Lasers with spherical or cylindrical dielectric resonators supported by whispering gallery modes (WGM) have attracted much interest due to their microscopic size, high cavity Q factor, and low lasing threshold. Cylindrical microcavity lasers based on the gain only in the evanescent field region of whispering gallery modes have been demonstrated in our recent works. The gain was excited by the evanescent wave of longitudinal optical pumping along the optical fiber. To well understand the obtained lasing spectra, the mode assignment is required. The explicit asymptotic formulas for the position and mode-interval of whispering gallery modes were obtained from the characteristic equation of whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical micro-cavity. The formulas were used to analyze the lasing spectra emitting from cylindrical microcavies which were evanescent-wave-gain pumped. The lasing spectra were found to be transverse magnetic modes(TM), and then the spectra were mode assigned with two integers, i.e., radial quantum numbers (l) and angular momentum numbers (n). Based on the explicit asymptotic formulas, all of the spectra from five optical fibers with a diameter ranging from 215 to 328 mm were well mode assigned. In the match between experimental spectral data and the asymptotic formula, only two matched parameters (l, n) were used, and the wavelength deviation in the match was less than 0.05 nm, which indicated that the mode assignment was reliable and precise. The spectral mode-assignment of cylindrical micro-cavity is important for computing the spatial distribution of mode intensity and is crucial for the applications of frequency-shift biosensor built in cylindrical micro-cavities. The method introduced in this paper can also be used to measure the diameters and refractive indexes of cylindrical micro-cavies precisely.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2749-2753 [Abstract] ( 1330 ) PDF (1121 KB)  ( 494 )
2754 Spectral Diagnosis of Plasma Jet at Atmospheric Pressure
LI Chi1,TANG Xiao-liang1, 2,QIU Gao1, 2*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2754-04
A new approach to surface modification of materials using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is presented in the present paper. The emission spectral lines of argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure were recorded by the grating spectrograph HR2000 and computer software. The argon plasma emission spectra, ranging from 300nm to 1000nm, were measured at different applied voltage. Compared to air plasma emission spectra under the same circumstance, it is shown that all of the spectral lines are attributed to neutral argon atoms. The spectral lines 763.51 and 772.42 nm were chosen to estimate the electron excitation temperature. The purpose of the study is to research the relationship between the applied voltage and temperature to control the process of materials’ surface modification promptly. The results show that electron excitation temperature is in the range of 0.1-0.5 eV and increases with increasing applied voltage. In the process of surface modification under the plasma jet, the infrared radiation thermometer was used to measure the material surface temperature under the plasma jet. The results show that the material surface temperature is in the range of 50-100 ℃ and it also increases with increasing applied voltage. Because the material surface was under the plasma jet and its temperature was decided by the plasma, and the material surface temperature increased with increasing the macro-temperature of plasma jet,the relationship between the surface temperature and applied voltage indicates the relationship between the macro-temperature of the plasma jet and the applied voltage approximately. The experimental results indicate that DBD plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is a new approach to improving the quality of materials’ surface modification, and spectral diagnosis has proved to be a kind of workable method by choosing suitable applied voltage.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2754-2757 [Abstract] ( 1809 ) PDF (907 KB)  ( 542 )
2758 Photophysical Properties of Poly (2-Methoxy-5-Octyloxy)-p-Phenylene Vinylene/TiO2 Nano-Composites
SUN Jian-ping1,2, WENG Jia-bao1,2, CHENG Yun-tao1, LIN Ting1, HUANG Xiao-zhu1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2758-05
The photoelectric composites of poly (2-methoxy-5-octyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene/nanometer TiO2(PMOCOPV/TiO2) with different nanometer TiO2 amount were synthesized through dehydrochlorination in-situ polymerization. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicated that the surface of nanometer TiO2 was coated with PMOCOPV. UV-Vis spectrum showed that the absorption of PMOCOPV/TiO2 nano-composites was strengthened in the range of violet and visible light with the contents of TiO2 increasing. The composite dimensions were observed by highly resolution transmission electron microscope, PMOCOPV/TiO2 nano-composites dispersed uniformly and possessed core-shell structure, the diameter of PMOCOPV/TiO2 was measured to be about 30 nm, and the thickness of the PMOCOPV coating was about 8-10 nm. Photoluminescence spectroscopy indicated that the maximum emission wavelength of the PMOCOPV/TiO2 was red-shifted with increasing TiO2 concentration. The fluorescence lifetime of PMOCOPV/TiO2 was about 1 ns. The intensity and lifetime of fluorescence was increased remarkably with the contents of TiO2 increasing. The mechanism of the strengthened fluorescence quantum efficiency and fluorescence intensity of PMOCOPV/TiO2 was investigated through the charge transfer, exciton dissociation and potential energy in PMOCOPV/TiO2 nano-composites.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2758-2762 [Abstract] ( 665 ) PDF (2120 KB)  ( 467 )
2763 The Influential Factors of MOCVD Growth of InP in Opals
TAN Chun-hua1, FAN Guang-han2, HUANG Xu-guang1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2763-04
The key problem of fabricating the 3-D InP inverse opal photonic crystal is to increase the loading of InP in opals. In the present paper, low-pressure metal-organic chemical-vapour deposition (MOCVD) was used to infill the voids within synthetic opals with InP. The morphologies and optical properties of SiO2-InP photonic crystal were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis). Several series of experiments were carried out in order to analyze the factors that influence the loading of InP in opals and determine the optimal InP growth conditions. The results of optical experiments are in good agreement with those derived from the theoretical considerations: By increasing the extent of InP infilling within the voids, the extent of refractive index contrast between the silica spheres and the void as well as the extent of natural optical properties change of the photonic crystal were increased. Cycle growth,low-pressure growth, and using the match substrate and the same configuration character between SiO2 and InP are beneficial to increaseing the extent of InP infilling within the opal voids. The process has been optimized to achieve SiO2-InP photonic crystal with higher loading of InP. The study provides a scientific basis for manufacturing three-dimensional InP inverse opal photonic crystals.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2763-2767 [Abstract] ( 1212 ) PDF (1057 KB)  ( 441 )
2768 A Novel Red Phosphor (La3PO7∶Eu3+) Prepared by Solid State Method
JIN Ye1, 2, QIN Wei-ping3*, ZHANG Ji-sen1, WANG Yan1, 2, CAO Chun-yan1, 2, ZHANG Ji-shuang1, 2, REN Xin-guang1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2768-04
Novel red phosphor, Eu3+-doped oxyphosphate (La3PO7∶Eu3+), was synthesized by a solid state method under high temperature. All the starting materials were analytical grade. La2O3, Eu2O3 and (NH4)2HPO4 weighed in appropriated molar ratios and ground in an agate mortar. Then the powder was treated under 1 000 ℃. The crystal phase of La3PO7∶Eu3+ was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using a Cu target radiation resource (λ=1.540 78 ?) and exhibited prominent peaks accordant with JCPDS standard card (33-0720) of La3PO7 in monoclinic phase. Emission and excitation spectra of La3PO7∶Eu3+ were recorded at room temperature using a fluorescence spectrometer (Hitachi F-4500). Under 254 nm excitation, intense red fluorescence was observed from La3PO7∶Eu3+, which was assigned to the 5D07F2 transition of Eu3+ ions. The intensity of the 5D07F2 transition is stronger than that of the 5D07F1 transition, showing that the Eu3+ ions were in the non-centrosymmetric sites in La3PO7. The CommissionIn-ternational DeL″ Eclairage (CIE) coordinate of La3PO7∶Eu3+ is (0.63,0.37) in the red area of CIE1931 XY chromaticity coordinate graph and close to that of Y2O3∶Eu3+, but the cost of La3PO7 host is lower. This novel material may have potential applications in plasma display panels and Hg-free fluorescent lamps in the future.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2768-2771 [Abstract] ( 194 ) PDF (846 KB)  ( 399 )
2772 Measurement of Fruit Maturity Based on Laser-Induced Photoluminescence Spectrum
WANG Le-yan, ZHANG Dong-xian, ZHANG Hai-jun, WANG Xiao-ping
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2772-05
Grounding on the concepts of biophotonics measurement, the authors first used a red semiconductor laser (655 nm) to irradiate fruits. Compared with other kinds of illuminating sources, the red semiconductor laser is less expensive and takes little space. The laser-induced photoluminescence spectrums could be detected by coupling fibre-optics probe when the fruits are illuminated by laser. And the spectrum has a distinct peak of relative intensity around the 685 nm wavelength that varies with the degree of fruit maturity. Sugar content measurement was used to prove the laser-induced photoluminescence measurement. The authors tested the sugar content of the fruit specimens, and found that the relative peak value of the fruits’ laser-induced photoluminescence spectrum decreases with the increase in their sugar content. The authors used partial least-squares (PLS) regression to perform an analysis of the relationship between the laser-induced photoluminescence intensity and the sugar content, fitting a curve of the two parameters. The correlation coefficient r of the fitted value and the actual value is 98.92% for red-inside plum and 97.31% for nectarine. So the authors could generalize that there is an approximate linear relationship between the peak value of laser-induced photoluminescence intensity and the sugar content of fruits, and we could use the maturity measurement based on this concept to decide the fruit ripeness. The authors designed the analytic program for this laser-induced photoluminescence spectrum measurement system, which mainly realizes two functions: generating the standard ripe spectrum of a certain kind of fruit from a quantity of their spectra, and, according to this standard spectrum, determining the maturity degree of an unknown spectrum, and at the same time, displaying the unknown laser-induced photoluminescence spectrum. Incorporating this analytic program with the optical spectrometer, it becomes conceivable to test the fruit maturity very conveniently and quickly. The measurement system of fruit maturity based on laser-induced photoluminescence spectrum has also been used to test various fruits. This measurement is nondestructive and inexpensive, and does not require complicated equipment, a feature of great importance in real-time measurement of fruit maturity.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2772-2776 [Abstract] ( 1335 ) PDF (1089 KB)  ( 485 )
2777 Effects of Preparation Parameters on the Long Lasting Luminescence of ZnGa2O4
HUANG Shang-yong1,2,ZHANG Xi-qing1,HUANG Hai-qin1, YAO Zhi-gang1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2777-04
Using high temperature solid state reaction method, ZnO and Ga2O3 with high purity as raw materials, different ZnGa2O4 samples were prepared at different molar ratios of raw materials and different temperatures, After excitation of the ZnGa2O4 samples by 254 nm UV lamps, obvious long lasting luminescence was detected for the first time, which showed two new long lasting luminescence peaks at 505 nm and 690 nm, respectively. And the relative intensity of the two peaks was effected by the preparation conditions such as molar ratio of the two raw materials and the sintering temperature. Less ZnO or higher temperature will strengthen the relative intensity of the 505 nm peak, while more ZnO or lower temperature will strengthen the relative intensity of the 690 nm peak. The origin of the two peaks was discussed based on some corresponding documents, and the conclusion is that the 505 nm peak comes from the 2EA4A2 transition of Ga3+ in a relatively distorted octahedral after some Zn2+ are substituted by Ga3+; and the 690 nm peak comes from the V*0→O2- transition after the singly charged ion oxygen vacancies appeare in the octahedral structure. The reasons why the preparing conditions can affect the relative peak intensity of the two peaks were also discussed. Less ZnO will cause Zn2+ vacancies in the structure and more Ga3+ will occupy the Zn2+ positions, then will form distorted octahedral, and then the transition from energy level 2EA to 4A2 of Ga3+ will cause the 505 nm peak to be dominant. On the other hand, too much ZnO will form oxygen vacancies,which will cause the 690 nm peak to be dominant. Higher temperature will cause more evaporation of ZnO and then relative less ZnO, and lower temperature will cause less evaporation of ZnO and then more oxygen vacancies. These conclusions are corresponding with the origin of the two peaks discussed before.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2777-2780 [Abstract] ( 447 ) PDF (1138 KB)  ( 443 )
2781 Synthesis of CaLaAl3O7∶Eu3+ by Gel-Combustion Method and Its Luminescence Properties
SHA Ren, WANG Xi-gui, WU Hong-ying, LI Xia
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2781-04
Using the gel-combustion method the precursors of CaLa1-xAl3O7xEu3+(0.05≤x≤0.8) were prepared. When annealing temperature was below 700 ℃, the materials were in amorphous state, while as annealing temperature was above 800 ℃, the high purity CaLa1-xAl3O7xEu3+ crystalline materials were obtained. The luminescence properties of CaLa1-xAl3O7xEu3+ both in amorphous and crystalline phases were investigated, and the results of excitation spectrum show a similar charge transition band of Eu3+—O2- between 230 nm and 320 nm and a series of ff transition of Eu3+ ion. However, the strongest band of amorphous material was at 465 nm corresponding to 7F05D2 transition, and those of the crystalline materials were at 394 nm corresponding to 7F05L6 transition of Eu3+ ion. In amorphous state materials the emission intensity of excitation wavelength 465 nm was stronger than that of 394 nm, and composition of 5D07F0 transition at 578 nm, 5D07F1 transition at 587 nm and 5D07F2 transition at 615 nm. In crystalline material, the emission intensity of excitation wavelength of 394 nm was stronger than that of 465 nm, the 5D07F0 transition disappeared, and the 5D07F1 transition split into 587 nm and 596 nm. With the increase in temperature, the strongest band at 615 nm increased, and what is more, the 5D07F1 transition increased remarkably. In CaLa1-xAl3O7xEu3+, when x=0.2 for the co-doping Eu3+ ion and the mol proportion of citric acid and metal ion (C/M) was 1.2, the luminescence intensity was the highest.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2781-2784 [Abstract] ( 561 ) PDF (1077 KB)  ( 440 )
2785 Studies on Sensitization for Electrochemiluminescence of Luminol with Platinum-Gold Bimetallic Nanoparticles Modified Electrode
ZHANG Ling, GUO Wen-ying, CHU Hai-hong, TU Yi-feng*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2785-04
The present paper reports the researches on sensitization of nano-bimetalic material for the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol. The platinum-gold bimetallic nanoparticles with different component ratio and size were prepared by chemical reduction. The analytical methods such as UV-Vis spectra, TEM and XRD were applied to characterize the properties of the nanoparticles. The information obtained from these methods revealed that the prepared bimetallic nanoparticles were truly of alloy structure and absolutely not the mixture of two kinds of metallic nanoparticles. The components of the nanoparticles could be regulated for a series of Pt/Au ratios and the diameters determined by laser-granulometer. In alkaline medium of pH 12.0, the bimetallic Pt-Au nanoparticle modified electrode sensitized the electrochemiluminescence of luminol. The sensitization efficiency reached as high as one order of magnitude with the 6∶1 of Pt/Au ratio. The specific surface area of nanoparticles would be larger as the size diminishes, resulting in a higher surface activity, so the smallest size of nanoparticles led to the highest efficiency.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2785-2788 [Abstract] ( 1102 ) PDF (993 KB)  ( 483 )
2789 Effects of Fullerene Soot on the Thermal Decomposition and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum of PEG
HAN Xu1, LI Shu-fen1*, ZHAO Feng-qi2, PAN Qing2, YI Jian-hua2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2789-04
Effects of fullerene soot (FS) on the thermal decomposition and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) of polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight=20 000) were investigated by thermal analysis (TG-DTG) and in-situ FTIR experiments. The results of thermal analytical experiments showed that the addition of FS postponed not only the initial decomposition temperatures but also the temperatures at maximum decomposition rate of PEG. The maximum decomposition peak temperatures increased and the maximum decomposition rates were lowered even with the addition of 0.1%FS. The in-situ FTIR experiments proved that there was no difference between the IR spectra of PEG and PEG with 10%FS. There wasn’t any new chemical band formed but Vander waals force between FS and PEG. Although the addition of FS didn’t influence the constitution of decomposition products of PEG, it obviously increased the decomposition temperature and the decomposition rate of PEG. Through the researches on condensed phase and gaseous phase FTIR spectrum of PEG and PEG with 10%FS, one could see that the effect of FS on the condensed phase FTIR spectrum of PEG was not obvious, but the addition of FS markedly enhanced the occurrence temperatures of most gaseous decomposition products of PEG. These results showed that the effect of FS on thermal decomposition of PEG was through the absorbance and desorption of gaseous phase decomposition products. With the temperature elevated, the gaseous products were gradually desorbed from the activity centers and the decomposition of PEG continued. The thermal decomposition peak of PEG was moved toward higher temperature with the addition of FS than that without FS.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2789-2792 [Abstract] ( 790 ) PDF (1148 KB)  ( 446 )
2793 Research on the Measurement Range of Particle Size with Total Light Scattering Method in Vis-IR Region
SUN Xiao-gang, TANG Hong, DAI Jing-min
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2793-06
The problem of determining the particle size range in the visible-infrared region was studied using the independent model algorithm in the total scattering technique. By the analysis and comparison of the accuracy of the inversion results for different R-R distributions, the measurement range of particle size was determined. Meanwhile, the corrected extinction coefficient was used instead of the original extinction coefficient, which could determine the measurement range of particle size with higher accuracy. Simulation experiments illustrate that the particle size distribution can be retrieved very well in the range from 0.05 to 18 μm at relative refractive index m=1.235 in the visible-infrared spectral region, and the measurement range of particle size will vary with the varied wavelength range and relative refractive index. It is feasible to use the constrained least squares inversion method in the independent model to overcome the influence of the measurement error, and the inverse results are all still satisfactory when 1% stochastic noise is added to the value of the light extinction.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2793-2798 [Abstract] ( 555 ) PDF (1703 KB)  ( 482 )
2799 Evaluation of Fermentation Character of Alfalfa Silage Through Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy(NIRS)
CHEN Peng-fei1,2, RONG Yu-ping1*, HAN Jian-guo1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2799-05
It is very important to evaluate the fermentation character of alfalfa silage using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology (NIRS) for animal production, including the content of NH3-N, lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid in silage. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using NIRS to analyze the formation character of alfalfa silage, the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy models were built for NH3-N, lactic acid, zcetic acid and butyric acid in this experiment. Partial least square regression (PLS), Fourier transform technology and sample preparation with liquid nitrogen technology were used to optimize the model. The analyzed samples were obtained with different cultivars, maturity, cuttings and ensiling method. The determination of cross validation was between 0.602 4 and 0.949 7. The standard errors of cross validation were between 5.59×10-1 and 3.78 g·kg-1 fresh weight. The validation samples were used to test the performance of the models. The correlation coefficients between the chemical value and the NIRS value were between 0.882 6 and 0.985 3, and the root mean square errors of prediction were between 5.71×10-1 and 3.15 g·kg-1 fresh weight. The results showed the NIRS could evaluate the fermentation of the fresh forage.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2799-2803 [Abstract] ( 2217 ) PDF (856 KB)  ( 536 )
2804 NIR Analysis of Textile Natural Raw Material
ZHOU Ying,XU Hui-rong*,YING Yi-bin
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2804-04
NIR technology has gained more and more attention of researchers because of its advantage of simplicity, quickness and non-destructive property of detection. And combined with chemometrics method, it could remedy some disadvantages such as overlapping of peaks and feebleness of information. Now, NIR has been applied in many fields such as medicine and chemical industry. Textile is an important part in human life. With the development of society, people pay more attention to this field. Using microscope to discriminate textile fibre by man and using solution method to detect content of fibre are two main detection methods in textile national standards. These methods of discrimination demand a lot of training and practical experience. At the same time, many artificial factors in the process may result in different examination results of the same sample. In addition, they are time-consuming (6 hours on average) and not suitable for large quantity of sample detection. Therefore, doubtless finding another more quickly and nondestructive way to complete detection of textile fibre makes great sense. Compared with microscope method and chemical method, NIR technical could decrease test time down to about 30 seconds. Because the structure of natural fibre is more complex than artificial fibre, NIR application in this field is much more difficult and demands more experience. So many researches were done by experts domestically and abroad in this field. The scope of these researches includes differentiation of foreign substance in natural fibre such as wool, cotton, and silk; prediction of natural fibre content such as residual grease content, mean fibre diameter (MFD) and moisture content. The present paper focuses mainly on the application of NIR in the textile industry, especially the analysis of textile natural raw material, including discrimination of natural fibre variety and detection of foreign fibre.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2804-2807 [Abstract] ( 653 ) PDF (749 KB)  ( 431 )
2808 Applications of Spectral Analysis Technique to Monitoring Grasshoppers
LU Hui1,2, HAN Jian-guo1*, ZHANG Lu-da3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2808-04
Grasshopper monitoring is of great significance in protecting environment and reducing economic loss. However, how to predict grasshoppers accurately and effectively is a difficult problem for a long time. In the present paper, the importance of forecasting grasshoppers and its habitat is expounded, and the development in monitoring grasshopper populations and the common arithmetic of spectral analysis technique are illustrated. Meanwhile, the traditional methods are compared with the spectral technology. Remote sensing has been applied in monitoring the living, growing and breeding habitats of grasshopper population, and can be used to develop a forecast model combined with GIS. The NDVI values can be analyzed throughout the remote sensing data and be used in grasshopper forecasting. Hyper-spectra remote sensing technique which can be used to monitor grasshoppers more exactly has advantages in measuring the damage degree and classifying damage areas of grasshoppers, so it can be adopted to monitor the spatial distribution dynamic of rangeland grasshopper population. Differentialsmoothing can be used to reflect the relations between the characteristic parameters of hyper-spectra and leaf area index (LAI), and indicate the intensity of grasshopper damage. The technology of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been employed in judging grasshopper species, examining species occurrences and monitoring hatching places by measuring humidity and nutrient of soil, and can be used to investigate and observe grasshoppers in sample research. According to this paper, it is concluded that the spectral analysis technique could be used as a quick and exact tool in monitoring and forecasting the infestation of grasshoppers, and will become an important means in such kind of research for their advantages in determining spatial orientation, information extracting and processing. With the rapid development of spectral analysis methodology, the goal of sustainable monitoring grasshoppers can be developed in the future. First, it is needed to find the relationship between the grasshopper and its environment. Second, the new spectral technology including thermal infrared, microwave, UV detection, and laser technique will be widely practiced in grasshopper monitoring. Finally, it is obvious that the integration of all methods will drive the research into a bright direction of synthetically monitoring grasshoppers. Such approaches will greatly decrease the likelihood of grasshopper outbreaks.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2808-2811 [Abstract] ( 269 ) PDF (514 KB)  ( 544 )
2812 Infrared Spectral Studies of Separation of QAPVA/PMPVA Complex Membrane for Dehydrating Water of 95% Ethanol
MENG Ping-rui1, KANG Zhi-hui1, LI Liang-bo1, RONG Feng-ling1, LI Ruo-xin2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2812-04
Quaternized polyvinyl alcohol (QAPVA) and phosphate monoester polyvinyl alcohol (PMPVA) were self-assembled into polyion complex (PIC) membrane. The infrared spectra (IR) of PIC membrane dipped in 95% ethanol for 48 h were studied in the temperature range of 20-120 ℃ with an interval of 20 ℃ by analyzing the temperature dependent variations of OH stretch vibration base bands (νOH) at >3 000 cm-1. Hydrogen-bond of water in 95% ethanol with PIC was studied. Since the νOH strongly overlapped at >3 000 cm-1, combined with the static electric effect between water in 95% ethanol and ion-bond of PIC at 1 300-1 700 cm-1, two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) correlation analysis was applied to describe the possible combined modes between PIC and water in water-alcohol. The result shows that the νOH overlapped was distinguished at >3 000 cm-1, the change of water with varing tempertature was earlier than the intra-membrane OH self association and water was desorbed to separate from ethanol. The absorption peak of water and poly-electrolyte group intra-PIC membrane was identified. The water combined with ion-bond in PIC membrane by static electric effect was adsorbed with the temperature going up and separate from ethanol. The present study provides a simple method for investigating the separation performance of PIC membrane used in dehydration of organic compounds.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2812-2815 [Abstract] ( 1785 ) PDF (1266 KB)  ( 417 )
2816 Identification of Aluminum Toxicity of Soybean in Red Soil Region with FTIR, TG and DT Technology
YU Hui-na,LIU Peng*,XU Gen-di
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2816-05
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major constraints to crop production in acid soils. In order to provide a correct and effective identification method of aluminum toxicity of soybean in red soil regions, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal (DT) analysis were adopted to study the soybean root under different Al treatments. The results showed that the aluminum contents of soybean roots treated with 60 and 90 mg·L-1 Al concentration were higher than that with other aluminum treatment, and the Al content reached significant aluminum toxicity level. In the same wavenumber range, the character, wavenumber and absorption peak of infrared spectra were different from those under different Al treatments. In summary, the absorption peaks at 3 300, 2 930, 1 542 and 721 cm-1 were the characteristic peaks for identification that can be used to evaluate the Al toxicity of soybean. Detailed description is as follows: with the high aluminum treatment (60 and 90 mg·L-1), the characteristic peaks at 3 300 and 2 930 cm-1 were higher than those with other aluminum treatment. There are no infrared bands at 1 542 cm-1 under 90 mg·L-1 aluminum treatment, as the characteristic peak of Amide Ⅱ. However, the characteristic peak at 721 cm-1 was clearly shown at 60 and 90 mg·L-1, but no sign was shown in 0, 10 and 30 mg·L-1 aluminum concentration. Curves of TG and DT revealed the greatest difference with different Al treatment in the range of temperature of 400-500 ℃. Under the Al treatment above 30 mg·L-1, TG curve had less weight than that at 0 mg·L-1, which indicated that the root system may be more lignified, producing some material hard to be burned. DT curve had double peaks at 60 and 90 mg·L-1 Al treatments, which may also be used as identification mark of Al toxicity. Because some features were expressed under Al treatment with FTIR, TG and DT, the technology of FTIR, TG and DT provided a new way to identify Al toxicity of soybean in red soil region.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2816-2820 [Abstract] ( 2065 ) PDF (1003 KB)  ( 483 )
2821 Determination of Total Nitrogen Content in Fresh Tea Leaf Using Visible-Near Infrared Spectroscopy
HU Yong-guang1, LI Ping-ping1*, MU Jian-hua1, MAO Han-ping1, WU Cai-cong1,3, CHEN Bin2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2821-05
To monitor tea tree growth and nitrogen nutrition in tea leaves, visible-near infrared spectroscopy was used to determine total nitrogen content. One hundred eleven fresh tea leaves of different nitrogen levels were sampled according to different tea type, plant age, leaf age, leaf position and soil nutrients, which covered a wide range of nitrogen content. Visible-near infrared reflectance spectra were scanned under the sunlight with a portable spectroradiometer (ASD FieldSpec 3) in field. The software of NIRSA developed by Jiangsu University was used to establish the calibration models and prediction models, which included spectra data editing, preprocessing, sample analysis, spectrogram comparison, calibration model and prediction model, analysis reporting and system configuration. Eighty six samples were used to establish the calibration model with the preprocessing of first/second-order derivative plus moving average filter and the algorithm of PLS regression, stepwise regression, principal component regression, PLS regression plus artificial neural network and so on. The result shows that the PLS regression calibration model with 7 principal component factors after the preprocessing of first-order derivative plus moving average filter is the best and correspondingly the root mean square error of calibration is 0.973. Twenty five unknown samples were used to establish the prediction model and the correlation coefficient between predicted values and real values is 0.888 1, while the root mean square error of prediction is 0.130 4 with the mean relative error of 4.339%. Therefore, visible-near infrared spectroscopy has a huge potential for the determination of total nitrogen content in fresh tea leaves in a rapid and nondestructive way. Consequently, the technique can be significant to monitoring the tea tree growth and fertilization management.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2821-2825 [Abstract] ( 1846 ) PDF (575 KB)  ( 506 )
2826 Research on Predicting the Nutrition Value of Pelletized Alfalfa by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
HUA Rong1, HAN Jian-guo1*, QI Xiao1, NIE Zhi-dong1, LI Bo2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2826-04
The present research aimed to predict the qualities of pelletized alfalfa by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Sixty pelletized alfalfa samples were collected, including 22 whole plant alfalfa samples, 19 stem samples and 19 leaf samples. They were divided into a calibration sample set (45 samples) and a validation sample set (15 samples). The Fourier transform-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) and the partial least square (PLS) were used to calibrate models of the pelletized alfalfa nutrition value, involving crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents. All models had great calibration performances. The correlation coefficients of cross-validation (RCV) were between 0.964 10 and 0.968 87, and the root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) were between 0.80% and 2.59%. Fifteen validation samples were used to predict the performances of these models, all the correlation coefficients of NIRS value and chemical value (r) were between 0.966 9 and 0.974 3, and the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were between 0.85% and 2.07%. The RPD values of cross-validation and prediction were all above 3. The results showed that pelletized alfalfa’s CP, NDF, ADF contents were exactly predicted by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2826-2829 [Abstract] ( 365 ) PDF (677 KB)  ( 494 )
2830 Using Fourier Transform to Calculate Gas Concentration in DOAS
LIU Qian-lin1,WANG Li-shi2*,HUANG Xin-jian2,WU Yan-dan1,XIAO Ming-wei1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2830-05
Being an analysis tool of high sensitivity, high resolution, multicomponents, real-time and fast monitoring, the differential optical absorption spectrometry (DOAS) is becoming a new method in atmosphere pollution monitoring. In the DOAS technique, many gases spectra have periodicity evidently, such as those from SO2, NO, NH3 and NO2. Aiming at three kinds of main air-polluted gases, i.e. SO2, NO and NO2 in atmosphere, the DOAS technique is used to monitor them, and Fourier transform is used to analyse the above-mentioned absorption spectra. Under the condition of Hanning Windows, Fourier transforma is used to process various gases spectra which have periodicity. In the process, the value of the characteristic frequency has a linearity relation to the gas concentration. So a new analysis method of DOAS is proposed, which is utilizing the relation between the value of the characteristic frequency and the gas concentration to deduce a linearity formula to calculate the gas concentration. So the value of the characteristic frequency can be used to get the gas concentration. For the gases with evident spectrum periodicity, such as SO2 and NO, this method is good. But for some gases with periodicity not evident, the error in the calculated concentration is beyond the allowable value. So in this method, the important process is frequency separation. It is also the main part in the future study. In a word, this method frees itself from the basic theory in the DOAS technique, cuts down on the process of the concentration calculation and the spectral analysis, and deserves further study.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2830-2834 [Abstract] ( 2039 ) PDF (973 KB)  ( 471 )
2835 Infrared Spectrum Analysis of Admixture Decoction of Herba Ephedrae with Semen Armeniacae Amarum
LIN Wen-shuo1,2, CHEN Rong1*, GUO Shao-zhong2,LIN Ju-qiang1,FENG Shang-yuan1, LI Yong-zeng1, HUANG Zu-fang1,CAI Yu-hui1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2835-04
The infrared spectra of decoction of herba ephedra and semen armeniacae amarum and the mixed decoction of herba ephedra + semen armeniacae amarum were tested. The change in the the mixed decoction was discussed to study the relationship between herba ephedra and semen armeniacae amarum after decoction. The results showed that some absorption peaks of herba ephedra and semen armeniacae amarum were retained in the mixed decoction of herba ephedra + semen armeniacae amarum, such as 1 402 and 1 076 cm-1, but some absorption peaks that never appear in the two ingredient spectra increased such as 1 394 and 682 cm-1. New absorption peaks were generated in the mixed decoction of herba ephedra + semen armeniacae amarum,such as 688 and 1 187 cm-1. It can be showed that there were differences in the chemistry environment of the various chemical groups in the three decoctions introduced above, with the variation in absorption peak position, and the biochemical structure of the material changed, possibly with some new chemical compositions created. Medical ingredients in the mixed decoction of herba ephedra + semen armeniacae amarum were not simply the addition of herba ephedra and semen armeniacae amarum.based on studies of infrared spectrum of decoction, and the new notion of prescription spectroscopy was proposed.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2835-2838 [Abstract] ( 1691 ) PDF (682 KB)  ( 452 )
2839 Nondestructive Test on Predicting Sugar Content and Valid Acidity of Mango by Spectroscopy Technology
YU Jia-jia, HE Yong, BAO Yi-dan*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2839-04
Mango is a kind of popular tropic fruit in the word, and its quality will affect the health of consumers. Unsaturated acid is an important component in mango. So it is very important and necessary to detect the sugar content and valid acidity in mango fast and non-destructively. Visible and short-wave near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIRS) was applied in the present study to predict sugar content and valid acidity of mango. Because of the non-linear information in spectral data characteristics of the pattern were analyzed by neural network optimized by genetic algorithm (GA-BP). Spectral data were compressed by the partial least squares (PLS). The best number of principal components (PCs) was selected according the accumulative reliabilities (AR). PCs could be used to replace the complex spectral data. After some preprocessing and through full cross validation, 17 principal components presenting important information of spectra were confirmed as the best number of principal components for valid acidity, and 18 PCs as best number of principal components for sugar content. Then, these best principal components were taken as the input of GA-BP neural network. One hundred thirty five samples were randomly collected as modeling, and the remaining 45 as samples to check the forecast results by the model. For the sake of testing the GA-BP model, at the same time we took the BP neural network on the same PCs. The quality of the calibration model was evaluated by the correlation coefficients (R) and standard error of calibration (SECV), and the prediction results were assessed by correlation coefficients (R) and standard error of prediction (SEP). Comparing PLS-BP model with PLS-GA-BP model, the coefficients of determination (R) of 0.788/0.836 99 and standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 0.133 312/0.109 447 were calculated in valid acidity. The sugar content result was calculated by the coefficients of determination (R)=0.757 05/0.854 09 and standard errors of prediction (SEP)=0.864 676/0.609 34. Thus, it is obvious that this model is reliable and practicable. And the PLS-GA-BP model based on the spectroscopy technology is a better pattern to predict sugar content and valid acidity of mango, giving a new method for detecting fruit’s sugar content and valid acidity.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2839-2842 [Abstract] ( 1967 ) PDF (963 KB)  ( 500 )
2843 Study on Amidation Reaction between CdS/PAMAM and Amino Acid and Its Application to Latent Fingerprint Development
WANG Yuan-feng1, WANG Yan-ji1, YANG Rui-qin1*, JIN Yu-juan2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2843-04
A new method for the development of latent fingerprints by CdS/PAMAM nanocomposites was explored in the present research. Amidation reaction between terminal carboxylate groups of amino acids and terminal amino groups of PAMAM G4.5 dendrimers was studied by FTIR spectrometry. The reacting processes under different conditions were monitored by H1 267/1 735 (the relative ratio of peak height) in order to find out the optimized condition and developing method. The results indicated that the reacting processes were affected remarkably by the changes in temperature. The reaction was efficient under 90 ℃ within 4 hours, while the reacting speed decreased after 3 hours under 120 ℃. CdS/PAMAM was utilized as the latent fingerprint developing reagent and compared with the routine one. The results indicated that the fluorescence intensity of the former is 65 times higher than that of the latter. Great predominance in florescence could be observed when CdS/PAMAM and the routine developing reagent were compared. Latent fingerprints on the surface of different objects were developed under 120 ℃ within 0.5-3 h. Good developing results could be obtained under the optimized condition. The method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, safe and economical.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2843-2846 [Abstract] ( 1256 ) PDF (878 KB)  ( 455 )
2847 Near-Infrared Spectral Quantitative Analysis by Combining Classification with Local PLS
ZHANG Xiao-man, DAI Lian-kui*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2847-04
As a rapid analytical technology, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed fast in recent years. To improve the accuracy of near-infrared spectral quantitative analysis, the present paper first classifies a testing sample by a support vector machine classifier and selects some similar training samples of the same type to build the calibration model, than predicts the property of the testing sample. To avoid the negative influence of classification failure, a new hybrid algorithm (called H_PLS) was proposed. This algorithm consists of a local PLS model based on the same-type training samples (called C_PLS) and a local PLS model based on the total training samples (called D_PLS). H_PLS calculates the predictive value of the property for the testing sample by comparing the outputs of the two models. For a set of gasoline samples, experimental results show that the prediction accuracy of C_PLS is higher than that of D_PLS if there are no classification errors, otherwise the prediction accuracy of C_PLS will drop obviously. The novel proposed algorithm (H_PLS) combines the advantages of C_PLS and D_PLS. Using H_PLS, can increase from 0.973 4 of D_PLS and 0.965 6 of C_PLS to 0.985 8 even though there are classification errors.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2847-2850 [Abstract] ( 2286 ) PDF (772 KB)  ( 464 )
2851 A Novel Fuzzy Neural Network Method for Diesel Quantitative Analysis with Near Infrared Spectroscopy
QIAN Ping1, SUN Guo-qin1, ZHANG Cun-zhou2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2851-04
To satisfy the requirement of the production control and quality inspection of petrochemical products, a novel fuzzy neural network control method is proposed for determining product composition by near infrared spectroscopy. For the data analysis three different diesel products were selected as samples and six analytical models, such as saturated hydrocarbons, polar compounds, monoaromatics, dicyclic aromatics, tricyclic aromatics and naphthenes, were developed with the proposed fuzzy neural network method. Based on dSPACE, the near infrared spectroscopy system real-time experimental platform has been established to testify and analyze different diesel samples. The experimental results show that the improved performance is superior because of its advantage of quick response and good robustness. The mean squared error (MSE) of calibration and prediction samples is of the order of 10-6 in the spectral range of 800-2 300 nm. The developed method can be used in the research on petrochemical products processing.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2851-2854 [Abstract] ( 2220 ) PDF (831 KB)  ( 527 )
2855 Application of NIR Spectroscopy to Multiple Gas Components Identification
QI Ru-bin, YIN Xin, YANG Li, DU Zhen-hui*, LIU Jin, XU Ke-xin
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2855-04
Multiple gas components monitoring in situ by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is of great significance in the environmental monitoring. In the present paper, the apectral characteristics of the three types of the volatile organic compounds(VOCs)-propane, propylene and methylbenzene were analyzed, the linear relationship of propylene between concentration and absorbance was considered, and the NIR spectra from 1 620 to 1 750 nm including the characteristic absorption of the three VOCs were acquired, A linear regression model of chemical metrology was created by partial least-squares method and it predicted the concentration of propane and isobutene in the validation set. The results of the experiment indicated that NIR spectroscopy could easily, accurately and quantitatively determine the content of the multiple gas components, and can be used for monitoring the multiple components of the VOCs in situ.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2855-2858 [Abstract] ( 2218 ) PDF (696 KB)  ( 544 )
2859 Analysis of Acanthopanax Senticosus Harms for Different Parts Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
JIN Zhe-xiong1, XU Sheng-yan1, SUN Su-qin2*, ZHOU Qun2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2859-05
In the present paper, raw radix, stem and leaf and the total glycoside extract of them of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms were studied via the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method. The spectra of raw medicinal materials show that the spectra of radix and stem are similar and mainly show characteristic peaks of calcium oxalate and starch, whereas the characteristic peaks of calcium oxalate of leaf almost disappear and the shape of characteristic peak of starch also gets unconspicuous. The FTIR spectra of total glycoside extract of radix, stem and leaf present characteristic peaks at 1 602, 1 514, 1 452 cm-1 (vibration of phenyl framework) and 1 271 cm-1(CO), respectively, therefore, the authors speculated that their mutual component is the compound of phenolic glycoside. Through observing the second derivative IR spectra of the total glycoside extract of different parts of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms, the authors found that the characteristic peak of leaf is stronger than that of radix and stem at 1 656 cm-1 (flavone CO), this proves that the quantity of component of flavone in the leaf is higher than that in the radix and stem. In the two-dimensional correlation spectra, the radix and stem both have five automatic peaks (vibration of phenyl framework) in 1 350-1 700 cm-1, whereas the leaf still shows another automatic peak at 1 656 cm-1 (flavone CO),and this further proves that the quantity of component of flavone in the leaf is higher than that in the radix and stem.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2859-2863 [Abstract] ( 1912 ) PDF (1448 KB)  ( 503 )
2864 Study on the Identification of Illicium Vatum Hook. f. and Illicium Lanceolatum A. C. Smith by Multi-Ateps Infrared Macro-Fingerprint Method
ZHOU Jing1,3,SUN Jian-yun1,XU Sheng-yan2,ZHOU Qun3,SUN Su-qin3*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2864-04
Illicium vatum Hook. f. and its counterfeit Illicium lanceolatum A.C. Smith can be discriminated and identified by using multi-steps infrared maro-fingerprint method. The method combines three steps: general infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), secondary derivative spectroscopy and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR). The resolution is getting higher and higher and the differences of spectra are magnified farther. The holistic shape of peaks is similar in the FTIR spectra of Illicium vatum Hook. f. and Illicium lanceolatum A.C. Smith, but the spectra of llicium vatum Hook. f. show only one characteristic peak at 3 392 cm-1, while the spectra of Illicium lanceolatum A.C. Smith show two characteristic peaks at 3 482 and 3 387 cm-1, respectively. Observing their secondary derivative spectra, in the range of 850-1 180 cm-1 the strongest peak of llicium vatum Hook. f. is at 1 015 cm-1 and the intensity of other strong peaks is similar. However, the strongest peak of Illicium lanceolatum A.C. Smith is at 1 070 cm-1. In 1 180-1 500 cm-1, the intensity of peaks at 1 469,1 454 and 1 442 cm-1 of llicium vatum Hook. f. is stronger than that of peaks at 1 292,1 276,1 266 cm-1. The status of Illicium lanceolatum A. C. Smith is just opposite. The distinction of 2D-IR correlation spectra is more obvious. In 1 165-1 500 cm-1, the stronger automatic peaks of llicium vatum Hook. f. present at 1 153 and 1 000 cm-1, respectively, but those of Illicium lanceolatum A. C. Smith present at 911 and 878 cm-1, respectively. In 1 165-1 500 cm-1, llicium vatum Hook. f. has two automatic peaks while Illicium lanceolatum A. C. Smith has five automatic peaks. The multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid and effective.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2864-2867 [Abstract] ( 3511 ) PDF (1155 KB)  ( 509 )
2868 Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Studies on the Coadsorption of N-Methylimidazole and 2,2’-Bipyridine at Cu Electrode
WEI Ping-jie, YUAN Ya-xian, GU Ren-ao, YAO Jian-lin*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2868-04
The adsorption behavior and coadsorption of N-methylimidazole (NMIM) and 2,2’-bipyridine(2,2’-bipy) at copper electrode were investigated by in situ electrochemical surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in the acetonitrile solution. In situ SERS studies revealed that NMIM can adsorb stably onto Cu electrode in a quite different potential range, but the potential range for adsorbing 2,2’-bipy is narrow. With the introduction of 2,2’-bipy into the solution, the SERS could be divided into three parts: (a) under -0.8 V, NMIM molecule adsorption, (b) near the open potential, 2,2’-bipy molecule adsorption with cis-conformation, (c) at positive potential region, both NMIM and 2,2’-bipy were coadsorbed at Cu surface, and the SERS data also suggested that the NMIM bound to copper surface with a tilted orientation, while the 2,2’-bipy was adsorbed through cis-conformation to the surface.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2868-2871 [Abstract] ( 380 ) PDF (823 KB)  ( 478 )
2872 Raman Spectra of Murine Skin Irradiated by High Power Millimeter Wave
ZHANG Jie, HAN Li-jun, XIE Tao-rong, QI Hong-xing, CHEN Shu-de, QIAO Deng-jiang*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2872-04
An experimental study on Raman spectroscopy of normal murine skin and the skin irradiated by high power millimeter wave (HPMM) is presented. It is showed that the Raman spectra of normal skin mainly originate from collagen, and the characteristic peaks are 857, 936 and 1 658 cm-1. The result showed that after irradiation by HPMM, the relative intensity of the characteristic peaks at 857 and 936 cm-1 of Raman spectra was decreased. This meant that the collagen was destroyed and even damaged. It was probably indicated that the skin tissue was damaged and could not be restored. The result also showed that the intensity of the characteristic peak at 1 658 cm-1 of the skin tissue irradiated by millimeter wave with the duration of 20 s decreased. It was considered that the protein in the skin was destroyed. Those results were consistent with macroscopic observation results.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2872-2875 [Abstract] ( 1217 ) PDF (894 KB)  ( 433 )
2876 Raman Studies of Nanocrystalline BaTiO3 Ceramics
XIAO Chang-jiang1,2, JIN Chang-qing2, WANG Xiao-hui3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2876-04
High pressure can significantly increase the densification. Further, during the high pressure assisted sintering, the nucleation rate is increased due to reduced energy barrier and the growth rate is suppressed due to the decreased diffusivity. Thus high pressure enables the specimen to be fabricated with relatively lower temperature and shorter sintering period that assures to obtain dense nanocrystalline ceramics. Dense nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics with uniform grain sizes of 60 and 30 nm, respectively, were obtained by pressure assisted sintering. The crystal structure and phase transitions were investigated by Raman scattering at temperatures ranging from -190 to 200 ℃. The Raman results indicated that the evolution of Raman spectrum with grain size is characterized by an intensity decrease, a broadening of the line width, a frequency shift, and the disappearance of the Raman mode. With increasing temperature, similar to 3 mm BaTiO3 normal ceramics, the successive phase transitions from rhombohedral to orthorhombic, orthorhombic to tetragonal, and tetragonal to cubic were also observed in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics. In addition, when particle size is reduced to the nanoscale, one will find some unusual physical properties in nanocrystalline ceramics, compared with those of coarse-grained BaTiO3 ceramics. The different coexistences of multiphase were found at different temperature. Especially, the ferroelectric tetragonal and orthorhombic phase can coexist at room temperature in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics. The phenomenon can be explained by the internal stress. The coexistences of different ferroelectric phases at room temperature indicate that the critical grain size for the disappearance of ferroelectricity in nanocrystalline BaTiO3 ceramics fabricated by pressure assisted sintering is below 30 nm.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2876-2879 [Abstract] ( 2287 ) PDF (968 KB)  ( 441 )
2880 Microscopic Raman Spectral Imaging of Oily Core
HUANG Qiao-song1,YU Zhao-xian2,LI Jing3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2880-05
In the present paper, the authors examined some oily core by Raman spectral imaging methods. Those methods can be classified into two categories, referred to as “parallel or direct imaging” (Imaging) and “series or indirect imaging” (Mapping) techniques. The observed oily core samples which belong to siltstone that was from LONG-HU-PAO structure in SONG-LIAO basin. The samples were made from quartz (~60%), feldspar (~25%) and other impurity, a little recrystallized calcite (~1%) was in the pore, and the argillaceous matter was distributed along the edge of a pore. The experimental work was accomplished using Renishaw MKI2000 Model Raman spectrometer including System 1 000 plus filter wheel and filter set. The experimental condition is as follows: room temperature, back-scattering geometry, and excitation wavelength 514.5 nm (Ar ion laser). In organic matter region, the microscopic Raman spectrum shows that there are two strong scattering peaks at 1 587.2 and 1 334.5 cm-1, respectively. The former corresponds to intralayer bi-carbon-atomic stretch mode, referred to as “graphite peak”; the latter is disorder-induced feature because of the relaxation of the wave-vector selection rule resulting from finite crystal size effects, referred to as “disorder peak”. In pure core substrate region, we observed a sharper peak at 462.7 cm-1, corresponding to Raman active nonpolar optical mode of quartz crystal. On the basis of the above-mentioned experimental result, we accomplished Raman spectral imaging using mapping (indirect-imaging) procedure and imaging (direct-imaging) procedure, separately. In mapping (indirect-imaging) procedure, although the Raman spectra possess a high spectral resolution (~1 cm-1) in every spatial dot, the restructured picture shows a low spatial resolution power (~1 micrometer) because the smallest laser beam radius on the sample plane was restricted by objective lens NA. In imaging (direct-imaging) procedure, the Raman spectra possess a low spectral resolution power (~10-20 cm-1), but the picture shows a high spatial resolution power (~0.25-0.30 micrometer) because we need not restructure the picture whose spatial resolution power was only restricted by the optical wavelength. According to the specific structural and spectral properties of sample, and the practical research goal, the authors should select either imaging (direct-imaging) procedure or mapping (indirect-imaging) procedure.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2880-2884 [Abstract] ( 344 ) PDF (1059 KB)  ( 513 )
2885 Raman Spectra of PAN-Based Carbon Fibers during Surface Treatment
CAO Wei-wei, ZHU Bo*, JING Min, WANG Cheng-guo
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2885-05
Laser Raman spectroscopy was employed to characterize the microstructure changes of PAN based carbon fibers among different surface treatments, and the characteristics of first-order Raman spectra of carbon fibers during surface treatment were investigated in the present paper. The results show that the variety of carbon fibers’ phase structures can be represented by Raman spectroscopy parameters, such as the Raman frequency shifts of main D and G bands, FWHMs and additive bands’ area ratios at the positions of different Raman frequency shifts. During different surface treatment, some changes in the first-order Raman spectroscopy parameters of PAN based carbon fibers were observed, the Raman frequency shifts of D and G bands moved toward higher wavenumber, and the values of R(ID/IG) also improved, which can be used to measure the graphite crystallite size of carbon fiber. It is suggested that the graphite microstructure of carbon fibers is decomposed during surface treatment, the crystallite size is reduced, and the activity of the graphite crystallite boundary is improved. Moreover, the full-widths at half maximum (FWHM) of D and G bands both decrease, which can give information on the order of graphite microstructure and the quantity of defects in carbon fibers, and the relative bands’ areas of A and D″ bands also decrease, which can be attributed to the structure of amorphous carbon or some kinds of organic functional groups in carbon fibers. These differences among the spectra demonstrate that the structure of amorphous carbon in carbon fibers is easier to oxidize or decompose than multilayer graphite structure, so the relative proportion of amorphous carbon decreases during surface treatment. The conclusions obtained by Raman spectra are basically in agreement with the improvement of apparent crystallization degrees of carbon fibers during surface treatment, which were calculated by X-ray diffraction method. So the variety rules of carbon fibers’ phase structures can be investigated by laser Raman spectroscopy.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2885-2889 [Abstract] ( 2872 ) PDF (1018 KB)  ( 450 )
2890 Theoretical Study on Structure and Vibrational Spectra of M+AsF-6 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) Contact Ion Pairs
XUAN Xiao-peng, WANG Jian-ji*, ZHAO Pei-zheng
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2890-05
The present paper reports the possible geometries and vibrational spectra of AsF-6 anion and M+AsF-6(M+=Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+ and Cs+) contact ion pairs. It was shown that the tridentate C3V structure of M+AsF-6 was preferred over the monodentate and bidentate geometry. In the tridentate structure, the symmetry of AsF-6 in the coordination is lowered because of the presence of M+, and its structural parameters and vibrational modes largely differ from its original octahedral structure. The effect of Li+ on the structure of AsF-6 was greater due to its larger charge/radius ratio. The calculated bands for AsF-6 in M+AsF-6, located in the range of 600-800 cm-1, could be used to fingerprint what kind of ion pair was present in solutions.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2890-2894 [Abstract] ( 1708 ) PDF (738 KB)  ( 423 )
2895 Study on Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectroscopy Characteristics of Humic Acid during Composting with Microbes Inoculation
WEI Zi-min1,2, XI Bei-dou2, LI Ming-xiao1, WANG Shi-ping3, ZHAO Yue1*, JIANG Yong-hai2, SU Jing2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2895-05
Composting is one of the municipal solid wastes (MSW) treatment ways. In order to increase composting humification process, in the present study, inoculation microbes were used in MSW composting. The experiment design included RUNck with no microbes inoculation and RUNmic with microbes inoculation. The inoculation microbes were composed of Bacillus casei, Lactobacillus buchneri, Candida rugopelliculosa and Trichoderma. During composting, samples were taken from MSW composting, and humic acid (HA) was extracted from composting and purified, the three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3DEEM) characteristics and elemental analysis of the HA were determined, and the effect of inoculation microbes on the degree of humification of composting was studied. At initial stage of MSW composting, HA 3DEEM exhibited a peak of fulivc-like at an Ex/Em wavelength pair of 330/440 nm (peak a), and with MSW composting process, the excitation wavelength of peak a shifted from 330 to 350 nm. And a new peak of humic-like reformed nearby an Ex/Em wavelength pair of 390/470 nm (peak b). At 336 h of MSW composting, compared with RUNck (with no micromial inoculation), the fluorescence intensity of peak a (fulivc-like) nearby an Ex/Em wavelength pair of 350/440 in RUNmic (with microbial inoculation) was decreased, while that of peak b (humic-like) nearby an Ex/Em wavelength pair of 390/470 was slightly increased; the excitation and emission wavelength of peak a and peak b all shifted to long wavelengths. Elemental analysis indicated that C/H and O/C of HA molecule in RUNck increased by 9.68% and 10.91% respectively; and those of RUNmic increased by 11.11% and 20.37% at 336 h of MSW composting, respectively. The changes in HA 3DEEM and parameters of elemental analysis occurred in RUNmic at the final stage of composting, because degraded molecules, by the intense microbiological activity during composting, became reorganized to form more condensed compounds, richer in aromatic components. These results all led to the similar conclusion that inoculation microbes composting would accelerate the degree of HA humification, and increase the efficiency of composting.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2895-2899 [Abstract] ( 2232 ) PDF (1673 KB)  ( 458 )
2900 Time Decay Spectrum of NO2 Fluorescence Radiation
ZHANG Gui-yin, JIN Yi-dong
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2900-04
Investigation of the optical absorption and fluorescence of NO2 molecule has long been of interest because it is not only one of the key substances of air pollution, but also a stable molecule of nonzero spin and has many special properties such as that the vibronic levels of the first excited state are coupled strongly to the high vibration levels of the ground state, so that once NO2 molecules are excited, they must undergo complicated quenching process. The quenching mechanism influences the lifetime of the excited molecule severely. In the present paper, the fluorescence lifetime of NO2 excited electronic states are observed experimentally by the technique of LIF time decay spectroscopy and with an optical parameter generator and amplifier pumped by a Nd∶YAG laser as excitation source. The results show that the fluorescence lifetime of excited NO2 molecules depends on the excitation wavelength and sample pressure. The time decay curves present a property of bi-exponential when the excitation wavelength is selected as 429.0, 452.0, 509.0 and 532.0 nm, respectively. This indicates that the fluorescence is composed of two components. One has a long lifetime, while the other has a short one. The short-lived component comes from the radiation of the molecules excited by A2B2, B2B1X2A1 transition. And the long one is owing to the radiation of the molecules excited to the high rovibronic levels of the ground electronic state. These levels are correlated with A2B2 state. The de-excitation mechanism of the excited molecules is investigated by measuring the variation in fluorescence lifetime versus the sample pressure. The conclusion is that the excited molecules corresponding to the short lifetime quench mainly through the process of radiation and fast inner conversion. As to the excited molecules with long lifetime, the de-excitation process is not only radiation, but also the non-radiation process of collision.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2900-2903 [Abstract] ( 1123 ) PDF (848 KB)  ( 431 )
2904 Studies on Rare Earth Ions Complexation Properties of Tetranitrophenols-Armed Aza-18-Crown-6
ZHANG Qiang,GAO Sheng-hua
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2904-04
The synthesis of macrocyclic ligands appended with fluorescent or chromogenic chelators is a promising approach to developing metal-ion chemosensors because of the ion selectivity of macrocyclic ligands and the fluorescence or chromogenic response of the appended chelating groups. In the present paper, 1,10-dioxa-4,7,13,16-tetraaza-18-crown-6(L1) and 4,7,13,16-tetra(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)-1,10-dioxa-4,7,13,16-tetraaza-18-crown-6(L2) were synthesized and characterized via elemental analysis and 1H NMR spectrum. The complexation properties of L2 for H+, Ce3+, Nd3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+ and Yb3+ were studies by UV-Vis method in H2O-DMSO (φ=1/4) mixed solvent, and the stability constants of the complexes were determined. The results obtained indicate that the absorption peak of azacrown ether L2 at 314 nm was shifted toward long wavelength with increasing pH from 1.85 in the investigated solution. A new absorption peak appeared at 400 nm while increasing pH to 7.4, and the wavelength of peak position and absorption intensity were increased gradually with increasing pH. When rare earth ions were added to the solution, the absorption peak of L2 above 400 nm was shifted toward short wavelength, and absorption intensity was increased obviously in comparison with L2 alone. Thus the formation of the complex was verified, and it was formed at pH>7.0. The stability constants of the complexes obtained show that stability of the complexes depends upon the match between cavity dimension of L2 and size of the rare earth ions. There was a decrease in stability of complex with decreasing the radius of rare earth ion in the order of Ce3+>Nd3+>Sm3+>Eu3+>Gd3+>Tb3+>Dy3+>Yb3+.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2904-2907 [Abstract] ( 3025 ) PDF (963 KB)  ( 470 )
2908 Synthesis and Spectral Characteristics of Novel Di-Schiff Base Derivatives Incorporting Oxadiazole Ring
CHEN Tong-bin1,2, ZHANG Xiong-lu1*, FAN Xiao-lin1,LI Xun1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2908-04
4-nitrobenzoic acid and hydraxine sulfate were cyclized with H3PO4/P2O5 to afford 2,5-bis(4-nitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole(1), then(1)was reduced to 2,5-bis(4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole using Zn/CaCl2 as reduction reagent, and at last, a series of novel di-schiff base derivatives containing oxadiazole ring were obtained by the reaction of 2,5-bis(4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole with aromatic aldehydes (yield:65%-81%). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, FTIR and MS. Their UV-Vis spectra as well as fluorescence spectra were studied and the electrochemical properties were tested with cyclic voltammetry. The UV-Vis spectroscopy results show that the characteristic absorption peaks of 1,3, 4-oxadiazole unit and di-schiff base unit disappeared. The maximum absorption wavelength was detected at 345-357 nm because conjugation effect made the two energy bands partially hybrid and form a new energy band structure. Fluorescence spectroscopy results show that they emit strong blue and purple fluorescence, and the emission maximum wavelengths of di-schiff base are from 390 to 407 nm. Electrochemical properties results show that they have higher affinity energy (2.36-3.04 eV) and ionic potential (5.35-6.06 eV), which indicated that they have better electron-transporting properties than PBD except 3 a and 3 h. The results give a reference to further application to organic electroluminescent devices of the target compound.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2908-2911 [Abstract] ( 2497 ) PDF (824 KB)  ( 434 )
2912 Synthesis and Fluorescence Characteristics of Eu-Tb Complexes with Trimesic Acid
WANG Ji-ye1,GAO Yuan-zhe1, WANG Tao2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2912-04
A series of mixed rare earth complexes Eu1-xTbx(BTC)·nH2O(H3BTC=1,3,5-H3BTC, x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9,1.0) were synthesized by the reaction of trivalent rare earth chlorides with trimesic acid. The contents of rare earth were mearsured by using EDTA titration method, the element analyses of C and H were performed by Vario EL elemental analyzer. Their infrared spectra were recorded by FTIR-8900 infrared spectrophotometer with KBr pellet, and the fluorescence spectra were recorded by using a Hitachi F-4500 fluorescence spectrophotometer at room temperature. These results show that these complexes Eu1-xTbx(BTC)·nH2O can emit intense fluorescence from europium ion, the intensity of the fluorescence of the series complexes is greater in 5D07F1,2, and both the positions (5D07F1,2) show splitting emission peaks, but the peak positions of their emission spectra basically remain unchanged. These may be caused by the different coordinating pattern of the carboxylate groups. Additionally, the fluorescence intensity of europium ions was sensitized by terbium ions and that of terbium ions was quenched by europium ions. in these complexes. It was attributed to efficient energy transfer from the strongly absorbing ligand to the rather poorly absorbing lanthanide ion. and from Tb3+ to Eu3+. Moreover, the fluorescence emission of terbium ions increased markedly in these complexes.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2912-2915 [Abstract] ( 1408 ) PDF (600 KB)  ( 422 )
2916 Study on Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectra of Yanghe Classical Distilled Spirits
GU En-dong1,SHI Ai-min1,ZHU Tuo2*,XU Yan3,CHEN Guo-qing2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2916-05
In the present paper, the liquors of Hai zhi lan, Tian zhi lan and Meng zhi lan were selected as the objects, and by using equipment of UV-240 ultra-violet spectrophotometer and Sp-2558 multifunctional spectrometer, their absorption and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra induced by UV light were studied respectively. The maximum absorption wavelengths for all of them were located at 212 and 275 nm, but each has different intensity at 212 nm. Moreover, their three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were detected when they were induced by suitable UV-light, The results show that each of the spirits can emit three strong fluorescence lines at 310, 420 and 610 nm respectively when excited by UV-light at 245 nm. Furthermore, we found each of them can emit another two strong fluorescence lines when they absorb the UV-light at 310 and 345 nm. The authors found that they all have five different fluorescence peaks, but each has different intensity. According to the experimental phenomenon, through a careful analysis, it is pointed out that the differences of the five fluorescence peaks basically reflect the aging process and different content of the liquor. The three different brand yanghe classical liquors were identified fast and accurately. The paper also offered a kind of way to determine the quality and brand of white spirit.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2916-2920 [Abstract] ( 523 ) PDF (1214 KB)  ( 444 )
2921 Spectral Data Analysis of Salinity Soils with Ground Objects in the Delta Oasis of Weigan and Kuqa Rivers
ZHANG Fei1,2, DING Jian-li1,2, Tashpolat·Tiyip1*, HE Qi-sheng3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2921-06
The characteristic of landmark spectrum is not only the physical base of remote sensing technical application but also the base of the quantificational analysis of remote sensing, and the study of landmark spectrum is the main content in the basic research of remote sensing. In the present paper, the authors adopted CI700 portable spectrum apparatus made in American CID Company, and investigated or examined some spots in the delta oasis of Weigan and Kuqa rivers located in the north of Tarim Basin considered as the typical area, based on a great deal of spectral data for different kinds of geo-targets, and the spectral features and changing law of saline-alkaline ground, silver sand ground, dune, cotton ground etc. Alhagi sparsifolia.Phragmites australisTamarixHalostachys caspica etc. were analyzed. According to the actual conditions, we analyzed the data noise characteristic of the spectrum and got rid of the noise. Meanwhile, derivative spectrum technology was used to remove the environmental background influence. Finally, in order to take full advantage of multi-spectrum data, ground information is absolutely necessary, and it is important to build a representative spectral library. The ENVI software was used to build the spectral library of surface features by field survey of the delta oasis of Weigan and Kuqa Rivers, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. This library can be used for features investigation, vegetation surveys, vegetation classification and environmental monitoring in the delta oasis of Weigan and Kuqa Rivers by remote sensing. The result of this research will be significant to the research on the saline-alkali soil in the arid area.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2921-2926 [Abstract] ( 2448 ) PDF (1868 KB)  ( 468 )
2927 Quantitative Measurement of Fe(Ⅱ) in Human Blood with Spectral Analysis Method
XU Xiao-feng1, ZHAO Fu-li1*, WANG Shuang1,YE Bao-hui2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2927-04
Since the absorption spectra of Fe(Ⅱ) ions solutions vary with the concentration of Fe(Ⅱ) irons, the authors tried to establish a direct measurement of active haemachrome in human blood through spectral analysis, and successfully made an experiment on it. The authors prepared Fe(Ⅱ) ions solutions with various concentrations chemically, using 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) as chromogenic agent. After the absorption spectra of these solutions were analyzed, Gaussion fitting at absorption peaks was performed to them. The linear fitting figure showed that the areas of Gaussion fitting curves correspond to the concentrations of Fe(Ⅱ) irons. Thus, the concentration of Fe(Ⅱ) in human blood was figured out in this way, and the result fitted quite well the actual concentration. As an optimized method, this creative idea is more accurate and precise. It will probably contribute to the development of new devices for measuring Fe(Ⅱ) ions in human blood.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2927-2930 [Abstract] ( 1136 ) PDF (758 KB)  ( 500 )
2931 Determination of Amorphous Iron Oxides in Soil by Hydroxylamine Extraction-Spectrophotometry
CHI Guang-yu1,2, ZHANG Zhao-wei3, CHEN Xin1*, SHI Yi1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2931-04
Amorphous iron oxides in soil were determined by hydroxylamine extraction-spectrophotometry. The results showed that hydroxylamine extraction eliminates interference of magnetite and the defect of results being on the high side was overcome to a certain degree compared with oxalic acid-oxalic acid ammonium extraction. The hydroxylamine extraction-spectrophotometry for the detection of amorphous iron oxides in soil was highly precise (relative standard deviation was less than 2.0%) and highly reliable (recovery rates ranged from 97.5% to 101.5%). Other advantages of the method were rapidness,simplicity and a shorter chromogenic time. In addition, soil incubated anaerobically at constant temperature under laboratory condition was investigated. The results suggested that iron reduction rates during initiation, rapid reaction and steady phases in the soil samples anaerobic incubation were 0.030-0.053, 0.186-0.333 and 0.015-0.030 g·d-1·kg-1, respectively. Significant relationship between the concentrations of hydroxylamine extraction iron and iron reduction rates during rapid reaction phase in soil incubation (r=0.990 7, p<0.01) indicated that hydroxylamine had a higher degree of selectivity in amorphous iron oxides extraction than oxalic acid-oxalic acid ammonium extraction.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2931-2934 [Abstract] ( 1193 ) PDF (647 KB)  ( 444 )
2935 Immunonanogold Catalytic Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace IgG
DENG Jun-yao1,2,ZHANG Sheng-sen1,JIANG Zhi-liang1,3*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2935-04
Gold nanoparticles the size of about 10 nm were prepared by improved trisodium citrate reduction procedure, and were used to label goat anti-human IgG to obtain a sensitive spectral probe for IgG in the condition of pH 6.5. The immune reaction of nanogold-labeled IgG antibody (anti-IgG) with the antigen IgG took place to form the nanogold immune complex in pH 7.0 Na2HPO4-C6H8O7 buffer solution and in the presence of polyethylene (PEG). The optimal immunoreaction conditions were pH 7.0, 10.76 μg·mL-1 nanogold-labeled anti-IgG, 8.0% PEG 6000 and incubation time of 30 min under the ultrasonic irradiation. After centrifuging for 15 min at 16 000 rpm, the excess nanogold-labeled anti-IgG in the upper solutions was obtained, and was used to catalyze the colored particle reaction of HAuCl4 with NH2OH·HCl to produce gold particles with bigger size. The influence of pH value, HAuCl4 and NH2OH·HCl concentration, and reaction temperature and time on the immunonanogold catalytic reaction was considered spectrophotometrically. A pH 2.27 Na3C6H5O7-HCl buffer solution, 0.094 mmol·L HAuCl4, 1.92 mmol·L NH2OH·HCl, and reaction time of 6 min at 30 ℃ water bath were chosen for use. Results demonstrated that with increasing IgG, the concentration of gold labeled anti-IgG in the upper solution decreased, and the absorbance decreased linearly. Linear relationships between the decreased absorbance at 700 nm and the IgG concentration CIgG in the range of 0.10-10 ng·mL-1 were obtained. Its regress equation was ΔA760 nm=0.014 4cIgG+0.004 2, the related coefficient was 0.992 6, and the detection limit reached 0.06 ng·mL-1 IgG. The influence of foreign substances on the determination of 3 ng·mL-1 IgG was examined, with the relative error ±10%. Results showed that the following coexistent substances had no impact on the assay: 6 000 ng·mL-1 HSA, 6 000 ng·mL-1 gluocose, 6 000 ng·mL-1 Zn(Ⅱ),3 000 ng·mL-1 IgA, 3 000 ng·mL-1 Ca(Ⅱ), 3 000 ng·mL-1 L-arginine, 3 000 ng·mL-1 β-phenylalanine,2 400 ng·mL-1 Cu(Ⅱ),2 400 ng·mL-1 EDTA, 2 400 ng·mL-1 L-cystinol etc. This showed that the assay has high selectivity. The sensitive, rapid and highly specific assay was applied to the quantification of IgG in human sera, with satisfactory results.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2935-2938 [Abstract] ( 2391 ) PDF (514 KB)  ( 433 )
2939 Fluorescence Characteristic of Enro Floxacin Sensitized by Rare Earth Ion and Its Analytical Application
ZHUO Xia-jun, TONG Chang-lun*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2939-05
The fluorescence characteristic of enrofloxacin-yttrium (Ⅲ) (ENRX-Y3+) was investigated in the present paper. Experimental results indicated that Y3+ ion could greatly increase the fluorescence intensity of the system. From this, a simple and sensitive method of determining the ENRX was set up. The fluorescence intensity of the system was measured with a 1 cm quartz cell at the excitation wavelengths of 274 nm and the emission wavelengths of 424 nm. The optimal conditions were obtained as follows: pH=5.5-6.2, 0.1 mol·L-1 hexamethylenamine (HMA) buffer, the concentration of yttrium(Ⅲ) was 1.0×10-4 mol·L-1. Under the optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity of the system showed a good linear relationship with the concentration of ENRX in the range of 1.0×10-9-5.0×10-6 mol·L-1, its correlation coefficient was 0.998 1, and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 2.3×10-10 mol·L-1. Interferences of common metal ions and other pharmaceuticals usually used for the compatibility of medicines with the fluorescence intensity of the system were studied, and the results showed that most metal ions except Tb3+, Cu2+ and Al3+ and the compatible medicines used together with ENRX did not interfere with its determination. The recovery tests in the compatible medicines were also performed, and the results showed that all the recoveries were in the range of 98.0%-107.0%, and RSDs were in the range of 0.9%-4.5%. The presented method was used to determine the ENRX in actual pharmaceutical samples which were used in the treatment for animals as compared with the reported method of terbium (Ⅲ) luminescence probe, and the results were satisfactory. In addition, the luminescence mechanism of the ENRX-Y3+ system was also discussed.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2939-2943 [Abstract] ( 1225 ) PDF (903 KB)  ( 409 )
2944 Study on the Correlation between PMI and OD Changes in Rat’s Plasma
LI Wei1,2,KE Yong1,HE Guang-she3,XU Yong-cheng1,WANG Zhen-yuan1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2944-03
We chose the UV-Vis spectrophotometry as a new way to investigate the postmortem interval (PMI). One hundred fifty Sprague-Dawley female rats (weight 260 g±10 g, from Xi’an Jiaotong University Animal Center) were chosen and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The bodies were kept in a controlled environmental chamber set at (20±2) ℃. The plasma was harvested in course of 0 to 24 hours after death. The optical density (OD) at different wavelengths was measured with an UV-Vis spectrophotometer (type-UV250). It was shown that the OD changes of plasma at 577, 416 and 275 nm in 24 hours were dramatically related to PMI, and the R-indexes were 0.969, 0.97 and 0.898. The regression formulae of these indexes were worked out taking OD as independent variable, and PMI as variable. The quadratic equations were: PMI=231.227ODplasma at wavelength of 577 nm-501.16ODplasma at wavelength of 577 nm-3.080 9(R2=0.945),PMI=31.7426ODplasma at wavelength of 416 nm-9.184 7OD2plasma at wavelength of 416 nm-3.183 7(R2=0.94),and PMI=95.238 8ODplasma at wavelength of 275 nm-39.343OD2plasma at wavelength of 275 nm-32.408(R2=0.795). It was concluded that the OD changes of rat’s plasma are good and potential markers for the estimation of PMI and should be very useful in forensic practice.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2944-2946 [Abstract] ( 1120 ) PDF (589 KB)  ( 403 )
2947 Black Soil Organic Matter Content Prediction Based on Reflectance Simulation Models
LIU Huan-jun1,2,ZHANG Bai1,LIU Dian-wei1,SONG Kai-shan1,WANG Zong-ming1*,YANG Fei1,2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2947-04
The hyperspectral reflectance characteristics of black soil in Heilongjiang province were analyzed quantitatively, and then the main characteristic controlling points of reflectance were determined and used to build soil reflectance prediction models; the relationship between organic matter content and reflectance and the coefficients of simulating models were studied, Black soil organic matter content spectral prediction models were built, and the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance simulatiib method was discussed. The results are as follows: (1) Organic matter content is the determining factor of black soil reflectance characteristics in the range less than 1 000 nm. When the content is low, the covering effect of organic matter on the black soil parent matrix reflectance characteristics is very weak, there are two absorption vales at 500 and 640 nm; when the content reaches a certain content (about 5%), the reflectance characteristics of black soil parent matrix are totally covered by organic matter, and there is only one large absorption vale in the region caused by organic matter. (2) The spectral characteristic controlling points of black soil hyperspectral reflectance in the range of 450-930 nm are located at 450, 500, 590, 660 and 930 nm, and divide the black soil reflectance into four parts. (3) Simulation models (linear, quadratic) rightly describe the characteristics of black soil hyperspectral reflectance, and the linear piecewise model shows a better performance. (4) The organic matter content prediction models with the coefficients of reflectance simulation models as independent variables are more precise than that based on soil reflectance and its derivate, which indicates that the characteristic controlling points for reflectance simulation models are selected reasonably and representatively, and the simulation models partly solve the data redundancy problem of soil hyperspectral reflectance, and improve the precision of black soil organic matter content prediction models with remote sensing methods. Reflectance simulating method can be used for data simplification and compression, data redundancy removal, organic matter and other soil parameters’ remote sensing studies.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2947-2950 [Abstract] ( 1955 ) PDF (581 KB)  ( 488 )
2951 Comparison of Methods for Estimating Soybean Leaf Area Index
YANG fei1,2,ZHANG Bai1*,SONG Kai-shan1,WANG Zong-ming1,LIU Dian-wei1,LIU Huan-jun1,2,LI Fang1, LI Feng-xiu1,2,GUO Zhi-xing1,2,JIN Hua-an1,2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2951-05
Leaf area index (LAI) is an important biophysical parameter,and is the critical variable in many ecology models,productivity models and carbon circulation study. Based on the field experiment data,an evaluation of soybean LAI retrieval methods was conducted using NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) and RVI (ratio vegetation index),principle component analysis (PCA) and neural network (NN) methods,and the estimate effects of three methods were compared.The results showed that the three methods have an ideal effect on the LAI estimation. R2 of validated model of vegetation indices,PCA,NN were 0.753 (NDVI),0.758 (RVI),0.883,0.899. PCA and NN methods were better with higher precision,and PCA method was the best,as its RMSE (0.202) was slower than the two vegetation indices (RMSEs of NDVI and RVI were 0.594 and 0.616) and NN (RMSE was 0.413) method. While the LAI was small,vegetation indices were obvious for removing the noise from soil and atmospheric effect and obtained the good evaluation result. PCA showed better effect for all LAI. LAI affected the estimating result of NN method moderately. As for the NN method,modeled LAI value and measured LAI regression formula slope was the nearest to 1 with R2 of 0.949,which showed a great potential for LAI estimating. As a whole, PCA and NN methods were the prior selection for LAI estimation,which should be attributed to the application of hyperspectral information of many bands.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2951-2955 [Abstract] ( 1839 ) PDF (820 KB)  ( 437 )
2956 Analysis of Vegetation Dynamics over Liaoning Province Based on Remote Sensing Data
WANG Li-wen1,2, WEI Ya-xing3, NIU Zheng1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2956-05
In the present paper, the authors used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data derived from NOAA AVHRR sensor to analyze spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of Liaoning province during the past two decades. A set of 2 292 spatially distributed NDVI values were analyzed to investigate obvious deviations by the mean-monthly values from 1982 to 2001. Various statistical analyses including minimum, mean and maximum values, coefficient of variation (CV), standardized anomalies (Z-scores), and 36-month running mean were used for monthly NDVI values to research spatial and temporal variations in vegetation. In Liaoning province, the authors found the strong seasonal oscillations during plants growing period, the maximum value of NDVI appeared in July-August, and seasonal variation ranged from 6% to 14% of CV value. Vegetation greenness kept upward trend from 1984 to 1990, but showed downward trend from 1991 to 1998. Vegetation greenness followed an interannual oscillation period of 7-8 years. The authors also found that the variation of NDVI peak along latitude direction was 20%-25% greater in 1991-1999 than in 1982-1990 in dry season across Liaoning province. The conclusions of this paper suggest that the patterns of vegetation variability in Liaoning province were caused by enhanced aridity occurring over the last decade of the 20th century.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2956-2960 [Abstract] ( 2741 ) PDF (1349 KB)  ( 455 )
2961 Determination of Trace Amounts of Aluminum by Light-Absorption Ratio Variation Combined with Continuous Flow Analysis
WANG Hong-yan, GAO Hong-wen2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2961-05
In a pH 5.66 acetate-acetic acid medium, the complex reaction of Al(Ⅲ) with chlorophosphonazo-mS (MSCPA) is very sensitive. In order to react with Al(Ⅲ) completely, MSCPA must be added excessively enough. Without doubt, the excess MSCPA in the reaction solution affected the measurement of light-absorption of the Al-MSCPA complex. Thus, ordinary spectrophotmetry is unfit for the measurement of such a complex. To eliminate such an interference, both A537 nm and A618 nm were selected as the work wavelengths and the spectral correction technique was applied to the characterization of the above complex. The result showed that the composition ratio of Al(Ⅲ) to MSCPA is 1∶1. Using the complexation, a new dual-wavelength approach named the light-absorption ratio variation approach (LARVA) was applied to the determination of trace amounts of Al(Ⅲ), which often increases the sensitivity up to 10 times better than ordinary spectrophotometry. From the LARVA, the less the MSCPA added, the higher the sensitivity obtained. However, a too low amount of MSCPA caused an obvious error in the measurement because of the noise of instrument background. In the present work, 2.80 μmol·L-1 MSCPA was added into the Al(Ⅲ) solution. The absorbance ratio difference (ΔAr) of the Al-MSCPA solution is proportional to the Al(Ⅲ) concentration in the range of 0 and 0.150 mg·mL-1. The LOD of Al(Ⅲ) is only 2 mg·L-1. The result indicated that many kinds of metal ions did not affect the direct determination of Al(Ⅲ). Besides, the addition of thiourea solution may mask Fe(Ⅲ) and Cr(Ⅲ) effectively. The complexation between Al(Ⅲ) and MSCPA was completed in 2 min, and the color absorption of solution remained almost constant for more than 1 h. Therefore, a set of continuous flow analysis (CFA) device was designed for the online rapid analysis of Al(Ⅲ) and coupled with LARVA to increase greatly the analytical efficiency. The results showed that the LOD of Al(Ⅲ) is 6.5 mg·L-1 and the analytical rate is about 30 samples per hour. This method has been applied satisfactorily to the determination of trace amounts of aluminum in two chemical reagents, giving recoveries in the range of 97.6%-103.5%.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2961-2965 [Abstract] ( 1560 ) PDF (900 KB)  ( 400 )
2966 Determination of Mineral Elements in Brown Rice of Near-Isogenic Lines Population for Japonica Rice by ICP-AES
ZENG Ya-wen1,3, WANG Lu-xiang2*, SUN Zheng-hai1,4, YANG Shu-ming1, DU Juan1, LI Qi-wan2, PU Xiao-ying1, DU Wei1, XIAO Feng-hui3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2966-04
In the present paper, the contents of 17 mineral elements (S, Mo, Ni, Fe, Cr, Na, Al, Cu, P, Sn, Zn, B, Mn, Mg, Ca, Sr and K) in brown rice of 264 plant lines in near-isogenic lines (NILs) population and parents for Japonica rice were determined by ICP-AES technique. The method proved to be simple, rapid, highly sensitive and accurate, and can be used to determine many elements at the same time. Its recovery ratio obtained by standard addition method ranged between 92.3% and 110.27%, and its RSD was lower than 6%. The analytical results showed that NILs for various mineral elements based on the BC5F5 population consisting of 261 lines were developed from a cross between NIL (BC4F5) and Towada. To our knowledge, this is the first report on that near-isogenic lines NIL(BC4F5) with the important value for high mineral elements associated with cold tolerance at booting stage have been bred. The results of the determination show that the brown rice is rich in eleven elements such as P, K, Mg, S, Ca, Zn, Mn, Na, Fe, Cu and Al necessary to human health. There is smaller variation of 5 macroelements (11.15%-16.45%) but larger variation of 12 microelements (16.57%-94.96%) in brown rice from populations. There is significant correlation among 95 from 136 pairs in 17 elements, moreover, especially the correlation (0.531**-0.921**) among 15 pairs of six micro-elements (Mo, Ni, Al, Sn, Cr and Sr) associated with the active components of functional rice is relatively higher than that of 10 pairs (0.175**-0.867**) of 5 macroelements (P, K, Ca, Mg and S), revealing the importance of microelements to catalysing and synthesizing the active components of functional rice. The above results provided reliable data and theory bases for gene location and cloning of controlling elements contents in brown rice, and further revealed the molecular and physiological mechanism of the relation between mineral elements in brown rice and cold tolerance at booting stage in japonica rice from Yunnan Province of China.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2966-2969 [Abstract] ( 399 ) PDF (430 KB)  ( 445 )
2970 Application of ICP-MS in Evaluating Element Contamination in Soils
WU Ying-juan, CHEN Yong-heng, YANG Chun-xia, CHANG Xiang-yang
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2970-05
The Yunfu pyrite was the second biggest pyrite bed in the world. Plants using industrial ore of the Yunfu pyrite are distributed in many sections across the country. In the present paper, elements V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Sb, Rb and Cs in soil profiles in slag disposing area of a sulfuric acid plant using industrial ore of theYunfu pyrite were studied. A method for simultaneously determination of metals and some reference elements in soils by ICP-MS was developed. The correlations between the metals and their reference elements were fast found. Enrichment factors were applied for evaluating the degree of soil contamination, and the problem about choosing contamination elements background values was pointed out. The results indicated that element V showed apparent and serious pollution, The Co showed middle degree pollution, and there has been a trend of apparent pollution. The Cr, Mo and Cd showed pollution between light degree and middle degree. The Zn and Sb showed light degree pollution, and there was a latent trend of middle degree pollution. The Cu showed light degree pollution. The high enrichment points of the V and the Cr were observed in the upper part (4.0-10.5 cm) and deep part of soil profiles (44.0-75.5 cm). Those of Co and Mo were found in the surface of soil profiles (0-5.0 cm), middle-upper part (9.5-10.5 cm) and middle part (29.5-46.0 cm), while those of Cd and Cu occurred just in the middle of soil profiles (29.5-46.0 cm). The formation of highly enrichment points of contamination elements in the soil profiles was the result of leaching and accumulating effect of the metals released from slag and the residual metals of highly weathered red soils. Most of pollution of V in the soil was contributed by the V in soil bed. Part of the V pollution in the soil was supplied by leaching and accumulating effect of the V which came from catalyst with lost activity in sulfuric acid production volatilizing into slag.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2970-2974 [Abstract] ( 2153 ) PDF (437 KB)  ( 440 )
2975 Total Selenium and Se Species in Vegetables Measured with Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry
LI Lian-ping1, FAN Wei1, HUANG Zhi-yong1*,ZHUANG Zhi-xia2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2975-04
The amounts of total selenium and Se-species including organic and inorganic selenium in vegetables were measured with the method of hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The instrumental parameters and analytical conditions were optimized. In order to obtain the maximum fluorescence signal, the effects of the concentrations of HCl and KBH4 in carrier solution, the concentrations of HCl and HNO3 in sample medium, and the interference from foreign ion (Cu) on the signal were mainly investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit estimated with 3-fold standard deviation by 11 replicates of procedure blank was 0.35 ng·g-1. The recovery tested by adding standards ranged from 97.6% to 101%. After being digested with HNO3 by microwave, selenium in several kinds of vegetables was measured. The results indicated that the total amounts of Se in the vegetable samples were low except straw mushroom, in which the content of Se was 0.151 μg·g-1 (dry weight). In addition, the species of organic selenium were the main existing forms in vegetables.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2975-2978 [Abstract] ( 178 ) PDF (672 KB)  ( 501 )
2979 Determination of Cadmium by HG-AFS in Soil of Virescent Zone in Chengdu City
CHEN Yuan,ZENG Ying*,WU Hong-ji,WANG Qin-er
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2979-05
The different speciations of cadmium in soil samples from Chengdu greenbelt were extracted by Tessier sequential extraction method. The contents of total cadmium and different speciation cadmium were determined using HG-AFS. Under optimization condition of HG-AFS and using 2% HCl as medium, and 30 g·L-1 KBH4 as reductive reagent, 1 mg·L-1 Co2+ acting together with 10 g·L-1 CH4N2S can advance the generating efficiency of cadmium compound. The effects of the coexisting elements in soil on the determination of cadmium can be reduced if certain amount of Na4P2O7, K2SO4 and BaCl2 are added. The linear range is 0-10 mg·L-1 with r=0.999 1 and the detection limit is 0.016 mg·L-1. The recovery is 97.80%-100.2% with RSD of 1.93%. The analytical method is very sensitive and accurate. The distribution of average percentage of five speciations of cadmium in experimental soil samples is: residual fraction (62.1%)>exchangeable fraction (11.7%)>Fe-Mn oxide-bound (9.71%)>carbonate-bound (4.17%)>organic-bound (3.47%). Although residual fraction is the main speciation of cadmium in soil, the content of exchangeable fraction is relatively high. Thus the bioactivity of cadmium in the research area should be recognized. The concentration of cadmium exceeds the country standard in 19 soil sample, accounting for 86.4% of all soil samples. The soil from Chengdu greenbelt located in 1st ring road, 2nd ring road and 3rd ring road was polluted to different degree. The relative pollution magnitude of them is: 2nd ring road>1st ring road>3rd ring road.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2979-2983 [Abstract] ( 2265 ) PDF (910 KB)  ( 482 )
2984 Analysis of Effects of Salt Stress on Absorption and Accumulation of Mineral Elements in Elymus Spp. Using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
JIA Ya-xiong1, SUN Lei2,HE Feng1, WAN Li-qiang1, YUAN Qing-hua1, LI Xiang-lin1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2984-05
Salinization contributes significantly to soil degradation and the growth and survival of plants. A high level of salts imposes both ionic and osmotic stresses on plants, resulting in an excessive accumulation of sodium (Na) in plant tissues. Na toxicity disrupts the uptake of soil nutrients. Plant uptake and absorption of macro-elements under salt stress have been studied in plants, but there is little literature addressing the effect of salt stress on plant accumulation and absorption of micro-elements. Species in Elymus genus are among the most important forage plants on high-salinity soils in China. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of salt stress on accumulation and absorption of both macro- and micro-elements by wild plants of Elymus genus. Plant samples taken from two populations with different salt tolerance were tested and the level of 4 macro-elements, namely Na, K, Ca and Mg, and 4 micro-elements, namely Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The relationship between the selection of elements in the process of absorption and accumulation and salt tolerance was also analyzed. The results showed that the level of Na in root and leaf tissues increased with increasing salt stress. The level of Na in leaf tissue of plants with high salt tolerance (HS) was significantly higher than that in plants with low salt tolerance (P<0.05). The level of K and Ca decreased in response to increasing salt stress, while that in HS was higher than in LS. The level of Fe and Zn in the tissues of both roots and leaves increased. No significant difference was detected between HS and LS samples in the level of Cu in root tissues, while that of Cu in leaf tissue of both samples increased. The level of Mn decreased with increasing salt stress, but was higher in HS than in LS. Fe and Zn in roots and leaves of HS were lower than in those of LS.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2984-2988 [Abstract] ( 272 ) PDF (671 KB)  ( 430 )
2989 Study on Determination of Eight Metal Elements in Hainan Arecanut Leaf by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
LIU Li-yun, WANG Ping, FENG Mei-li,DONG Zhi-guo,LI Jie
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2989-04
Arecanut is a sort of palm that is important economic crop for the farmers in Hainan province of China, wherein there are many kinds of metal elements such as K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn etc. These elements are important nutrition for the growth of arecanut. It is very valuable to study on the content of these metal elements in arecanut leaf in terms of plant nutriology of arecanut. The arecanut leaf in Wangling county, Hainan province of China was sampled by diagonal-field-sampling method. Refering to other plant sample determination by FAAS,the detailed studies are done with different digestion and determination methods. In the present paper the effects of mixed acid of HNO3-HClO4 digestion method on determining the amount of metal elements in the arecanut leaf by FAAS is reported, and another one is incineration digestion method. FAAS method was established for the determination of K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. The samples were incinerated or heated with HNO3-HClO4 (4∶1). In the meantime, the optimum parameters of FAAS and effects of different digestion methods on the results were discussed. The recovery rate of standard addition is 98.36%-102.38% in the first method; RSD is 0.42%-2.328%(n=6); The recovery rate of standard addition is 99.22%-103.72% in the second method; RSD is 0.58%-1.28%(n=6). The metal amount determined by the first method is lower than the second method, the ratio is 0.970 3-0.993 4. The two methods are satisfied, but the latter is better. It is precise enough to common experiment to use flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry with digestion by incineration. If the especially precise experiment is required, the digestion methods with mixed acid of HNO3-HClO4 may be introduced. The paper introduced methods dependable for determination of some metal elements in order to study on some nutrient effects of these metal elements in arecanut.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2989-2992 [Abstract] ( 2490 ) PDF (460 KB)  ( 454 )
2993 Measurement and Analysis of Platycodon Grandiflorum with Space Flight Mutagenesis Breeding by XRF
WANG Wen-jing1, GUAN Ying1*, SUN Xin1, ZHU Yan-ying1, SHI Jin-shan2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2993-03
X-ray fluorescence spectrum(XRF)analytic method was used to analyze and compare the contents of various mineral elements in the ground group platycodon grandiflorum, the comparison group platycodon grandiflorum and the fourth generation platycodon grandiflorum with space flight mutagenesis breeding. The result indicated that the contents of microelements Zn, Mn and Fe in the outer space group increase by 1.9, 2.4 and 0.6 times respectively, compared with those in the ground group. Microelements Zn, Mn and Fe concern curative effect such as expectorant effect in the Chinese traditional medicine. And the elements Zn and Mn increase by 0.6 and 1.9 times respectively, compared with the comparison group. The outer space group is closer and/or superior to the comparison group compared with the ground group. To conclude, the performance of the outer space group platycodon grandiflorum was upgraded obviously. X-ray fluorescence spectrum analytic method has many advantages, such as quickness, simpleness, high sensitivity, wide measure range, and easy reappearance etc. The method could be applied to the mensuration and analysis of the other traditional Chinese medicines which could be ground into powder.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2993-2995 [Abstract] ( 2291 ) PDF (451 KB)  ( 481 )
2996 Research on the Interrelation Analysis System of Celestial Spectrum Data Based on Constraint FP Tree
ZHAO Xu-jun, ZHANG Ji-fu*, CAI Jiang-hui
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-2996-04
It is an effective method of the mankind seeking after the celestial law that the inherent and unknown interrelationships between characteristics of celestial spectrum data and its physical and chemical properties are mined from the mass celestial body spectrum data. In the present paper, the interrelation analysis system of celestial body spectrum data based on constraint FP tree is designed and implemented by using the association rule based constraint FP tree as the way of analyzing celestial spectrum data, and adopting VC++ and Oracle9i as the development tools. At the same time, its software architecture and function modules are outlined. Its key techniques such as preprocessing of celestial body spectrum data,background knowledge representing,constraint FP-tree constructing,constraint frequent patterns and association rules mining etc are discussed in details. The running results show that the system is feasible and valuable for adopting association rule to describe the above interrelationships. Therefore, the interrelation analysis system of celestial body spectrum data provides an effective means for seeking after the inherent and unknown celestial law.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 2996-2999 [Abstract] ( 1707 ) PDF (1155 KB)  ( 401 )
3000 Construction and Test of Long Pathlength Automated Analyzer of Trace Nutrients in Seawater
SUN Zhao-hua1,2, CAO Wen-xi1, ZHAO Jun1,2, LI Cai1, ZHOU Wen1,2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2008)12-3000-04
Nutrients are routine aspects for marine environment monitoring. With low concentration in oceans, nutrients are difficult to be measured with a routine spectrophotometer. Based on liquid core waveguides, a new high-sensitivity analyzer was constructed to measure trace nutrients in oceans. The analyzer can provide continuous measurement of spectral absorbance of water sample in the spectral range from 350 to 900 nm with a spectral resolution of 1.02 nm. The processes such as sample injection, data acquisition of absorbance and data analysis are automatically controlled by a built-in PC104 micro computer. The results of test proved that, with the reaction time of about three minutes, the analyzer could provide a detection limit of the order of nmol·L-1, which is about 1 000 times lower than that of routine spectrophotometer. The analyzer is amenable to trace nutrients monitoring in oceans.
2008 Vol. 28 (12): 3000-3003 [Abstract] ( 1306 ) PDF (1454 KB)  ( 456 )