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2012 Vol. 32, No. 01
Published: 2012-01-01

 
       光谱学与光谱分析
1 Interaction between Three Isoflavones and Different Isomers of Human Serum Albumin
MA Ji, LIU Yuan, XIE Meng-xia*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0001-06
The interaction mechanisms between isoflavones (Genistein, 3’,4’,7-trihydroxyisoflavone and Biochanin A) and different isomers of human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Various parameters (quenching rate constants, binding constants and number of binding sites) of isoflavones-human serum albumin complexes were calculated. The results showed that the isoflavones have only one binding site on human serum albumin, located at the Site I, and the binding constants were between 0.17×105 and 1.20×105 L·mol-1. Fluorescence enhancement experiments showed that the fluorescence intensities of the drugs significantly increased after interacting with HSA, indicating that the combination of drug and HSA had occurred. The binding mechanisms between three isoflavones and HSA were discussed.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 1-6 [Abstract] ( 636 ) PDF (2637 KB)  ( 696 )
7 Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Light Emitting Diodes on Patterned Sapphire Substrate
YAN Jian, ZHONG Can-tao, YU Tong-jun*, XU Cheng-long, TAO Yue-bin, ZHANG Guo-yi
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0007-04
In the present paper, optical characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes fabricated on the conventional (C-LEDs) and patterned sapphire substrates (PSSLEDs) were investigated by electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL). PSSLEDs show higher light output power and smaller full width at half maximum (FWHM) of EL than those of C-LEDs for their better crystalline quality. The FWHM of EL for PSSLEDs exhibits faster broadening as current increases than C-LEDs, while the same broadening of FWHM of PL as excitation power increases is shown in PSSLEDs and C-LEDs, which indicate that there is stronger band filling effect in PSSLEDs caused by relatively higher carrier density in their QWs at the same current injection level. Besides, smaller blue-shift of peak wavelength of EL as injection current increases in PSSLEDs suggests that piezoelectric field in PSSLEDs is weaker than that in C-LEDs. Therefore, comparing the changes in external quantum efficiency as current increases for PSSLEDs and C-LEDs, more serious efficiency droop for PSSLEDs could not be mainly caused by piezoelectric field in QWs.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 7-10 [Abstract] ( 1842 ) PDF (1594 KB)  ( 1008 )
11 Direct Determination of Hyperfine Structures and Isotope Shifts in the 6s5d 3D→6p5d 3F Transitions of Ba I
ZHONG Jia-qi1,2,3, YU Geng-hua1,2,3, WANG Jin1,2, ZHAN Ming-sheng1,2*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0011-04
In the present experiments, a new method of atomic spectral measurement using states optical pre-selection was proposed and demonstrated, and the measurement of hyperfine-structures and isotope shifts in the 6s5d 3D→6p5d 3F transitions of Ba I was taken as an example. A 791 nm laser was used to excite the different hyperfine transitions 6s6s 1S0→6s6p 3P1 for different isotopes of barium and different hyperfine energy-levels of 6s5d 3D2 for these isotopes were populated by the 6s6p 3P1→6s5d 3D2 spontaneous radiations, then the corresponding fluorescence spectra of 6s5d 3D2→6p5d 3F2 transitions excited by another 778 nm laser were recorded. Comparing of these spectra, 22 lines were recognized and the hyperfine-structure constants of 6s5d 3D2 and 6p5d 3F2 of 135Ba and 137Ba were evaluated consequently while the isotope shifts of these transitions were also determined.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 11-14 [Abstract] ( 424 ) PDF (1713 KB)  ( 520 )
15 Vibrational Levels and Dissociation Energies of Diatomic Systems Using Algebraic Method
ZHANG Yi1, SUN Wei-guo2,3*, FU Jia1, FAN Qun-chao2, FENG Hao2,LI Hui-dong3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0015-05
The fixed order in the algebraic method (AM) suggested by Sun et al. is changed to be a flexible one in the vibrational energy expansion because the order of diatomic potential energy expansion may not be a constant. The AM with a flexible order was used to tackle the possible “butterfly effect” that may be encountered in spectroscopic computations, and to study the full vibrational levels {Eν} and the dissociation energies De for N2-a′1Σ-uLi+2-2 2Σ+g4HeD+-X 1Σ+ and 39K 85Rb-(2)3Σ+ electronic systems. The results reproduced all known experimental vibrational energies, and predicted correct dissociation energies and all unknown high-lying levels that may not be given if one uses original AM. The calculations showed that the modified AM can be extended to study the full vibrational spectra for many more diatomic systems.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 15-19 [Abstract] ( 1605 ) PDF (1058 KB)  ( 465 )
20 Study on the Automatic Recognition Method of Elemental Spectra in Laser Induced Breakdown Spetroscopy
LIU Li-tuo,LIU Jian-guo,ZHAO Nan-jing*,LU Cui-ping,CHEN Dong,SHI Huan,WANG Chun-long,ZHANG Yu-jun,LIU Wen-qing
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0020-05
According to the spectral line broadening mechanism of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, the emission lines from the standard spectral database of NIST were simulated, and they were compared with the spectral data of experiment. In the process of comparison similarity measure was used to measure the similarity between the simulative spectra and the experimental spectra. The automatic recognition method of elemental spectra was studied, and the spectral data of soil between 340 and 345 nm was recognized by computing the proportional coefficients of the spectral lines Using principle of nonlinear least squares, the recognition process was completed. The feasibility and the advantage of the method were proved by the results of experiment.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 20-24 [Abstract] ( 1015 ) PDF (2480 KB)  ( 551 )
25 Study on Measurement of Trace Heavy Metal Ni in Water by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Technique
SHI Huan, ZHAO Nan-jing*, WANG Chun-long, LU Cui-ping, LIU Li-tuo, CHEN Dong, MA Ming-jun, ZHANG Yu-jun, LIU Jian-guo, LIU Wen-qing
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0025-04
The spectroscopy emission characteristics and the detection limit of trace heavy metal nickel in water was studied based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique, with a 1 064 nm wavelength Nd∶YAG laser as excitation source, and the echelle spectrometer and ICCD detector were used for spectral separation and high sensitive detection with high resolution and wide spectral range. A round flat solid state graphite as matrix was used for element enrichment for reducing water splashing, extending the plasma lifetime and improving the detection sensitivity, and the experimental sample was prepared by titrating a fixed volume of nickel nitrate solution of different concentrations on a fixed area of the graphite matrix. The results show that the better detection delay time is about 700 ns, the spectrum intensity raises with the concentration increase, a good linear relationship is presented at low concentration with a correlation coefficient 0.996 1, and the lower limit of detection of nickel in water with 0.28 mg·L-1 was retrieved. A measurement method for further study of trace heavy metals in water is provided with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 25-28 [Abstract] ( 418 ) PDF (1588 KB)  ( 552 )
29 Photoionization Ion Mobility Spectrometry (UV-IMS) for the Isomeric Volatile Organic Compounds
LI Hu1,3, NIU Wen-qi2, WANG Hong-mei1, HUANG Chao-qun1, JIANG Hai-he1, CHU Yan-nan1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0029-04
The construction and performance study is reported for a newly developed ultraviolet photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (UV-IMS). In the present paper, an UV-IMS technique was firstly developed to detect eleven isomeric volatile organic compounds including the differences in the structure of carbon chain, the style of function group and the position of function group. Their reduced mobility values were determined and increased in this order: linears<branches<cycles, primary<secondary<tertiary, para-<meta-<ortho- and alcohols <acetones<aromas. The concentrations of analytes were obtained by means of exponential dilution method, and the experiments show that the limit of detection of the homemade UV-IMS was around ppb-ppm.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 29-32 [Abstract] ( 649 ) PDF (1753 KB)  ( 524 )
33 Determination of Electron Density in Atmospheric Pressure Radio Frequency Dielectric Barrier Discharges by Stark Broadening
LI Sen, LIU Zhong-wei*, CHEN Qiang, LIU Fu-ping, WANG Zheng-duo, YANG Li-zhen
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0033-04
The use of high frequency power to generate plasma at atmospheric pressure is a relatively new development. An apparatus of atmospheric pressure radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge was constructed. Plasma emission based measurement of electron density in discharge columns from Stark broadening Ar is discribed. The spacial profile of electron density was studied. In the middle of the discharge column, as the input power increases from 138 to 248 W, the electron density rises from 4.038×1021 m-3 to 4.75×1021 m-3.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 33-36 [Abstract] ( 1050 ) PDF (1414 KB)  ( 861 )
37 Research on Radiation Intensity of Nanosecond Pulse Laser-Induced Soil Plasma
CHEN Jin-zhong, SONG Guang-ju, SUN Jiang, LI Xu, WEI Yan-hong
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0037-04
To improve the quality of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, nanosecond pulse laser generated by Nd∶YAG laser was used to excite soil sample. The laser-induced plasma spectrum was observed using a grating spectrometer and a photoelectric detection system. The influence of laser output energy ranging from 100 to 500 mJ on the radiation intensity of plasma was studied. The results show that both the line intensity and signal-to-background ratio can be enhanced under the optimized condition that the laser energy is 200 mJ .The quality of spectrum was further improved after the laser beam used to excite the sample was defocused properly. When the defocusing position is +6 mm, the spectral lines intensity of element Mg, Al, K and Fe increased about 46%, 63%, 59% and 45% compared to that without defocusing respectively. The spectral signal-to-background ratio increased about 11%, 31%, 35% and 38% respectively. This lays a foundation for detection of trace impurity element in soil.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 37-40 [Abstract] ( 1344 ) PDF (1785 KB)  ( 572 )
41 Off-Axis Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy Detection Techniques for the Measurement of Carbon Dioxide
ZHAO Hui, WANG Gui-shi, CAI Ting-dong, GAO Xiao-ming*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0041-05
The spectrum of carbon monoxide was obtained around 1.573 μm using a tunable distributed feedback semiconductor laser with a high-finesse cavity at room temperature via off-axis cavity enhanced absorption (CEA) spectroscopic technique. The absorption line of carbon monoxide at 6 357.311 6 cm-1 was chosen for trace detection. Meanwhile, in order to get more accurate measurements, absorption path length of the cavity calibration methods was studied, and a simple and practical calibration method was given. The results show that, the equivalent absorption path length of high-precision optical resonator was ~1 195.73 m. At last, we got the concentration of carbon monoxide in the real atmosphere to be ~388.346 ppm (S/N≈22), and the detection limit of carbon monoxide was 17.65 ppm. By combination of wavelength modulation technology and OA-CEAS technology, a minimum detectable concentration of 0.36 ppm (S/N≈1 064) was achieved eventually.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 41-45 [Abstract] ( 201 ) PDF (1582 KB)  ( 874 )
46 Rapid Detection of Residual Cyclohexanone in Disposable Medical Devices by Ultraviolet Photoionization Ion Mobility Spectrometry (UV-IMS)
LI Hu1,3, HAN Hai-yan1, NIU Wen-qi2, WANG Hong-mei1, HUANG Chao-qun1, JIANG Hai-he1, CHU Yan-nan1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0046-04
In the manufacture of disposable PVC medical devices, cyclohexanone is frequently used as an adhesive reagent, which can be released into the tube airspace or stored solution and thus may cause some adverse effects on patients in therapy. In this paper, an ultraviolet photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (UV-IMS) technique has been developed to detect cyclohexanone through monitoring the gas composition within a package of infusion sets. The concentrations of cyclohexanone were prepared by means of exponential dilution method, and the experiments show that the UV-IMS has a limit of detection at 15 ppb and its measurable linear dynamics range is over three orders of magnitude. The concentrations of cyclohexanone in three brands of infusion sets packages were determined to be 16.78, 17.59 and 46.69 ppm respectively. The UV-IMS is proposed as a tool for the quality control of medical devices to monitor illegal uses of chemical solvents like cyclohexanone.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 46-49 [Abstract] ( 559 ) PDF (1532 KB)  ( 509 )
50 Influence of Cold Spot Temperature on 253.7 nm Resonance Spectra Line of Electrodeless Discharge Lamps
DONG Jin-yang1,2, ZHANG Gui-xin1*, WANG Chang-quan1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0050-03
As a kind of new electric light source, electrodeless discharge lamps are of long life, low mercury and non-stroboscopic light. The lighting effect of electrodeless discharge lamps depends on the radiation efficiency of 253.7 nm resonance spectra line to a large extent. The influence of cold temperature on 253.7 nm resonance spectra line has been studied experimentally by atomic emission spectral analysis. It was found that the radiation efficiency of 253.7 nm resonance spectra line is distributed in a nearly normal fashion with the variation of cold spot temperature, in other words, there is an optimum cold spot temperature for an electrodeless discharge lamp. At last, the results of experiments were analyzed through gas discharge theory, which offers guidance to the improvement of lighting effect for electrodeless discharge lamps.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 50-52 [Abstract] ( 197 ) PDF (1440 KB)  ( 495 )
53 Ideal White Organic Light Emitting Devices Based on Doped PFO
ZHAO Fan-fan, LIANG Chun-jun*, HE Zhi-qun, XU Yong-yan, JI Qian
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0053-03
In the present paper, the electroluminescence emission from a doped polymer layer was studied. The blue fluorene PFO was used as the host material and MEH-PPV as the dopant. The spectral characteristics and color stability of the emission on CIE chromaticity diagram were investigated. With the doping ratio of 2.5 Wt%, the device shows turn-on voltage of 3 V, and color coordinates of (0.33, 0.33) at 11 V. The color coordinates of the device was stable with changing voltage in a large range, and located in the ideal white area in the range of 5~20 V voltage.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 53-55 [Abstract] ( 625 ) PDF (1781 KB)  ( 539 )
56 Effect of Bivalent Alkaline Earth Fluorides Introduction on Thermal Stability and Spectroscopic Properties of Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ Co-Doped Oxyfluorogermanate Glasses
HU Yue-bo1, 2, 3, ZHANG Xin-na2, ZHOU Da-li3, JIAO Qing1, WANG Rong-fei1, HUANG Jin-feng2, LONG Xiao-bo2, QIU Jian-bei1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0056-05
Transparent Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluorogermanate glasses alone containing MgF2, CaF2, SrF2 or BaF2 and nano-glass-ceramics only containing BaF2 were prepared. The thermal stabilities and the up-conversion emission properties of the samples were investigated. Analyses of absorbance spectra reveal that the UV cutoff band moves slightly to shortwave band with the doping bivalent cation mass increasing. The results show that the emission color can be adjusted by changing the alkaline earth cation species in the glass matrixes, especially as Mg2+ is concerned, and the emission intensity can increase notably by heating the glass containing alkaline-earth fluoride into glass ceramic containing alkaline-earth fluoride nanocrystals or increasing the content of bivalent alkaline earth fluorides.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 56-60 [Abstract] ( 880 ) PDF (1524 KB)  ( 541 )
61 Upconversion Properties of Sodium and Aluminum Fluorides Coated BaF2 Material
LIU En-zhou1, FAN Jun1*, HU Xiao-yun2, YE Yan-xi2, HOU Wen-qian1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0061-04
Sodium and aluminum fluorides coated BaF2 was synthesized by hydrothermal method. It was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The analysis results indicated that sodium and aluminum fluorides existed in the form of sodium fluoride and sodium fluoroaluminate, which combined with BaF2 surface via chemical bonds, and exhibited coated structure. Fluorescence spectroscopy testing showed that there were two wide upconversion emission peaks with maxima at 304 and 324 nm under the excitation at 583 and 863 nm, respectively. Its phosphorescence life time was greater than 18.4 ms, and the emission intensity exhibited a rising process from the beginning and a decaying process after 15 ms. The luminescence mechanism was proposed according to the energy conversion process of the upconversion emission, the results showed that the upconversion emission belonged to the quantum confinement effect-interface light emission center radiative recombination.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 61-64 [Abstract] ( 594 ) PDF (2207 KB)  ( 523 )
65 Effect of Different Excitation Monitoring Wavelengths on Emission Spectrum of Red Long Afterglow Phosphor Sr3Al2O6∶Eu2+, Dy3+
CUI Cai-e, LI Jian, HUANG Ping*, LIANG Li-ping, WU Yin-lan
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0065-04
The Eu2+ and Dy3+ ion co-doped Sr3Al2O6 phosphor powders with long afterglow were prepared with high temperature solid-state reaction. The phase and the spectra properties of the material were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence spectrophotometer. It was found that the sample is composed of pure Sr3Al2O6 phase. Furthermore, the emission peak of 537 nm under 360 nm excitation and that of 590 nm excited by 468 nm-light were obtained, respectively, and it is more interesting that the emission peaks were at 537 and 590 nm under 394 nm excitation. The effects of different excitation wavelengths on the emission spectrum were explained reasonably by the effect of nephelauxetic effect and crystal field. It revealed that the two types of luminescence with different color were caused by the differences of the center of gravity of the 5d excited state energy level and the split range of 5d energy level.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 65-68 [Abstract] ( 632 ) PDF (1520 KB)  ( 544 )
69 Spectral Analysis of Organic/Microcavity Organic Light-Emitting Devices with the Change in Thickness of Organic Layer
ZHANG Chun-yu1,2, WANG Cheng3, XIAO Li-guang1, LU Jing-bin2, WANG Hong-jie1, KONG Ling-wei1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0069-05
Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with emission peak at 520 nm were designed. The electroluminescence (EL) spectra including the integrated intensity, the peak width at half height, and the intensity and the position of the peak of the EL spectra of the OLEDs and microcavity OLEDs (MOLEDs), the total thickness of organic layers which is changeable, were calculated and theoretically analyzed with the thickness of the layer of NPB and light-emitting layer of Alq3 ranging from 10 to 100 nm, respectively. According to these studies, it was found that the optimized OLEDs should be constructed with 70 nm NPB and 62 nm Alq3, and this structure should be more suitable to configurate the MOLEDs. These results suggest that the suitable structure of OLEDs/MOLEDs could be designed with help of theoretical calculation, which is also helpful to the light-emitting properties of OLEDs and MOLEDs.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 69-73 [Abstract] ( 738 ) PDF (2013 KB)  ( 577 )
74 A Novel Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Method with Ferricyanide and Luminol for the Determination of Ractopamine in Biological Samples
FENG Ting, HU Yu-fei*, LI Gong-ke*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0074-04
A novel chemiluminescence method coupled with flow injection technique for the determination of ractopamine was developed. It was based on the enhancement of the chemiluminescence by ractopamine derived from the chemiluminescence reaction between luminol and ferricyanide in sodium hydroxide medium. The linear calibration range of the chemiluminescence intensity with respect to the ractopamine concentration covers from 4.0×10-9~8.0×10-7 g·mL-1. The relative standard deviation for ractopamine is 5.6% (n=11), and the detection limit is 2.5×10-9 g·mL-1. The method was firstly applied to the determination of ractopamine in biological samples with satisfactory results. The recovery was between 69.3% and 101.3%.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 74-77 [Abstract] ( 39 ) PDF (1390 KB)  ( 554 )
78 Thermal Infrared Spectral Variation and Sensitive Waveband of Quartzy Sandstone under Pressure
LIU Shan-jun1, WU Li-xin1,2, FENG Zhe1, XU Zhong-yin1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0078-05
In the present paper the thermal infrared spectral variation of quartz sandstone under uniaxial compression was detected by a spectroradiometer to study the sensitively responding waveband of infrared radiation excited by the pressure. The experimental result shows that the infrared spectrum varies with the load, and the variation feature is different in different wavebands. The infrared radiation intensity increases with the increase in the load within the waveband 8.0~11.5 μm (specially in 8.6~9.1 μm), and there is a quadratic correlation between them, meanwhile the signal-to-noise ratio of spectrum radiation is also higher in the waveband. But in other wavebands the correlation is worse and the signal-to-noise is also lower. This indicates that the waveband 8.0~11.5 μm is the sensitive waveband of infrared radiation to the pressure, and it is also the superior waveband for infrared remote sensing monitoring the stress and catastrophe of rock. The optimum waveband is 8.6~9.1 μm.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 78-82 [Abstract] ( 593 ) PDF (2100 KB)  ( 529 )
83 Measurement and Evaluation of Middle Infrared and Long Infrared Dual-Band Laser Emitting Spectrum
YUAN Sheng-fu, LUO Wei, ZOU Qian-jin, YAN Bao-zhu
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0083-05
Remote sensing interferometer spectrometer Tensor37 was selected as measuring equipment based on spectrum characteristics of a middle infrared and long infrared dual-band (DF & CO2) laser on account of problems,such as blending of CO2 spectrum and the third level of DF spectrum,existing in grating monochromator and spectrophotometer. Simulating measurement and real measurement of dual-band laser spectrum were explored after validating blackbody radiation response function of Tensor37. Effective data including spectrum composition, peak fluctuation, wavelength accuracy and relative intensity were evaluated for calculating gain media parameters, optimizing operating parameters and infrared application of dual-band laser.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 83-87 [Abstract] ( 478 ) PDF (2164 KB)  ( 483 )
88 Research Progress and Application Prospect of Near Infrared Spectroscopy in Soil Nutrition Analysis
DING Hai-quan, LU Qi-peng*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0088-04
"Digital agriculture" or “precision agriculture” is an important direction of modern agriculture technique. It is the combination of the modern information technique and traditional agriculture and becomes a hotspot field in international agriculture research in recent years. As a nondestructive, real-time, effective and exact analysis technique, near infrared spectroscopy, by which precision agriculture could be carried out, has vast prospect in agrology and gradually gained the recognition. The present paper intends to review the basic theory of near infrared spectroscopy and its applications in the field of agrology, pointing out that the direction of NIR in agrology should based on portable NIR spectrograph in order to acquire qualitative or quantitative information from real-time measuring in field. In addition, NIRS could be combined with space remote sensing to macroscopically control the way crop is growing and the nutrition crops need, to change the current state of our country’s agriculture radically.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 88-91 [Abstract] ( 1521 ) PDF (971 KB)  ( 678 )
92 Studies of the Thermal Radiation Characteristics of Urban Typical Surface Features
ZHANG Xia, ZHAO Yun-sheng*, SUN Tian-lin, LIANG Ren-feng
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0092-04
The use of thermal infrared technology to monitor the land surface temperature has received mature development, and the acceleration of urbanization makes the urban heat effect emerge, thus, studies of the thermal radiation characteristics of urban typical surface features make great significance for the analysis of the causes and distribution of the thermal phenomenon. Based on the study of ground measured data of Baoding city, we have found that, the feature types, the observation time and wall orientations are principal factors that exert an influence on the thermal radiation brightness temperature of urban typical surface features. The results show that different types of surface features will significantly affect the brightness temperature, but “different things with the same spectrum” still exists; the observation time has direct impact on the intensity of thermal radiation and to a large extent on the brightness temperature difference of each channel; the brightness temperature of different wall orientations are also different, and the difference changes with the change in observation time. Studies of thermal radiation characteristics of urban typical surface features have theoretical and practical significance, providing basis for thermal infrared remote sensing to monitor the urban heat effect.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 92-95 [Abstract] ( 1834 ) PDF (1486 KB)  ( 567 )
96 The Relationship between FTIR Spectra of PVA Film and Its Heat Preservation Capability
CUI Hai-long1, 2, XU Wen-guo1, HE Fu-qing2, WANG Zhao-hui3, JIAO Hong-wen2, LU Shi-xiang1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0096-03
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyethylene (PE) and ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) film was prepared. The optic capability, infrared transmittance and heat preservation capability of the films were studied respectively. The result indicated that the haze degree of the PVA film decreased about 15% and 12% than PE film and EVA film; PVA film transmittance of IR was more or less than other films in the 7~14 μm wavelength range so that the temperature of greenhouse could be increased effectively in daylight. It was just 16.2% about 20% less than EVA film, and 50% less than PE film. The PVA film could be used as agricultural film in greenhouse to promote heat preservation performance greatly.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 96-98 [Abstract] ( 607 ) PDF (1313 KB)  ( 521 )
99 Intercalation of Polystyrene in Kaolin via in-situ Polymerization
GUO Yong1, ZHENG Yu-ying2*, LONG Hai1, GE Liang1, LI Feng1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0099-04
The synergistic stabilization effect of different metal lanolin fatty acids as natural-based thermal stabilizers for poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) including calcium lanolin fatty acid (Calan2), zinc lanolin fatty acid (Znlan2) and Lanthanum lanolin fatty acid (Lalan3) were studied. The processability of PVC was tested by torque rheometer, the mechanical properties were studied by universal testing machine, and the coupling effect of product in PVC/CaCO3 was also researched. The results indicated that the properties of Lan/Zn stabilizer was better than Ca/Zn stabilizer and compound lead salt except static stability and dynamic stability.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 99-102 [Abstract] ( 1781 ) PDF (1979 KB)  ( 651 )
103 Study on Spectral Measurement Methods in Identification of Maize Variety Authenticity Based on Near Infrared Spectra of Single Kernels
JIA Shi-qiang1, GUO Ting-ting2, TANG Xing-tian1, SI Ge1, YAN Yan-lu1, AN Dong1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0103-05
In order to establish the better maize variety identification models based on single kernel samples, the near-infrared spectral measurement methods were studied by comparing the direction of the maize seed’s embryo, diffuse reflectance and transmission mode, devices of holding the sample according to their impacts on the performance of variety identification models. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to compress the pretreated spectral data into 9 variables, and then the identification models were built based on biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR). The results show that with the maize grain’s embryo facing the light source the models can be made perform better than with embryo backing toward the light source, diffuse reflectance mode is better than transmission mode, and small sample pool performs better than the small aperture. The measurement method of acquiring the diffuse reflectance near infrared spectra of maize by small pool with the seed embryo facing the light source can make models have the best performance. The average correct identification rate of the models is 94.6%, and the average correct rejection rates for the varieties not belonging to the models reached 96.5%.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 103-107 [Abstract] ( 1634 ) PDF (1489 KB)  ( 590 )
108 Intermolecular Hydrogen Bond between Protein and Flavonoid and Its Contribution to the Stability of the Flavonoids
FANG Ru, LENG Xiao-jing*, WU Xia, LI Qi, HAO Rui-fang, REN Fa-zheng, JING Hao*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0108-05
The interactions between three proteins (BSA, lysozyme and myoglobin) and three flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and rutin) were analyzed, using three-dimensional fluorescence spectrometry in combination with UV-Vis spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The stabilities of unbound flavonoids and protein-bound flavonoids were compared. The correlation between the interaction and stability was analyzed. The results showed that the hydrophobic interaction was the main binding code in all proteins and flavonoids systems. However, the hydrogen bond has been involved merely in the BSA system. The stability of all three flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and rutin) was improved by BSA. There was a great correlation between the hydrogen bonding and the stability of the flavonoids in the presence of BSA. It suggested that the protection of BSA on the flavonoids was due to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between BSA and flavonoid, and the stronger hydrogen bonding resulted in more protection.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 108-112 [Abstract] ( 580 ) PDF (2228 KB)  ( 557 )
113 Synchrotron Radiation-Based FTIR Microspectroscopy Study of the Hippocampus of 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rats
ZHU Hong-yan1, WU Ling-yan1, PEI Xiao1, QI Ze-ming2, WANG Yu-yin2, LIU Bo3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0113-05
Synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SR-FTIR) was used to preliminarily investigate the biochemical composition of the hippocampal neurons for 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats and normal rats. Spectral analysis showed that in PD samples, the CH2 asymmetric and symmetric vibrational absorption of integral area at 2 924 and 2 850 cm-1 and the intensity of CO vibrational absorption at 1 736 cm-1 (assigned to the lipid functional group) increase compared to normal samples, which indicate that lipid content increased in PD sample; the PO2 asymmetric and symmetric vibrational absorption decrease compared to normal samples (assigned to the nucleic acid functional group; However no clear difference of the vibrational fingerprinting of protein between PD and normal samples was noticed. The present results suggest that the changes in biochemical composition in hippocampal neurons in PD rats probed by synchrotron radiation based-FTIR may contribute to the elucidation of PD pathology.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 113-117 [Abstract] ( 851 ) PDF (1545 KB)  ( 563 )
118 Investigation of Thermal Behaviors of γ-Form Nylon 6 Prepared by Ammonia Vapor from Phosphoric Acid Solutions
GE Jia-wen1, 2, LIU Shao-xuan2, ZHANG Cheng-feng2, 3, LI Qin1, XIA Jin-ming4, XU Yi-zhuang2*, WU Jin-guang2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0118-05
In the present work, we prepared nylon 6 crystals via crystallization of nylon from phosphoric acid by using the vapors of ammonium hydroxide as a precipitation regent. Both XRD and FTIR results demonstrate that the obtained nylon 6 sample exhibit characteristic peaks of nylon 6 in γ form. In addition, treatment of nylon 6 in boiling water for half an hour followed by FTIR and XRD characterization shows that the obtained nylon 6 sample is in γ form rather than in meta-stable b form. DSC characterization indicates that the nylon 6 sample exhibits two melting peaks (213 and 220 ℃) when the sample is heated at a heating rate of 10 ℃·min-1. The reason for this phenomenon is that the nylon 6 sample has different lamellar thickness. To investigate the thermal behavior of the nylon 6 sample, the sample underwent the following thermal treatment procedure. First, the sample was heated to a pre-set temperature (Ts) and kept at that temperature for an hour. Subsequently, the sample was cooled down to 100 ℃ at a cooling rate of 1 ℃·min-1, and then cooled down to room temperature at a cooling rate of 10 ℃·min-1. The treated samples were characterized by FTIR and DSC method. Experimental results show that the treated nylon 6 samples exhibit different crystalline behavior. When Ts ranges from 130 to 160 ℃, no significant changes were observed. When Ts is 170 ℃, a small fraction nylon 6 crystals is destroyed and recrystallized into thin lamellae in a form. As a result, a pre-melting peak appears in DSC result. The pre-melting peak moves to higher temperature and its peak area increases significantly upon increasing Ts from 170 to 198 ℃. When Ts amounts to 200 ℃, the pre-melting peak and the melting peaks 213 ℃ merge into one melting peak and two melting peaks are observed at 212 and 220 ℃ in the DSC results. FTIR spectra indicate that significant amount of crystalline nylon 6 in a form appears but the majority of crystalline phase of the sample is still γ phase. As Ts increases from 200 to 209 ℃, the melting peak at lower temperature moves to higher temperature with increasing its peak area. On the other hand, the melting peak at 220 ℃ decreases in intensity but does not show any peak shift. As Ts reaches 209 ℃, the two melting peaks merge into one peak and FTIR results demonstrate that nylon 6 in a form becomes dominate phase in the sample. In the whole heat-treatment process, the γ phase nylon 6 sample began to transform to α phase at the heat-treatment temperature of 170 ℃, which is far below the melting point of the original sample (221 ℃). This is different from the results reported in the literature, which state that γ phase nylon 6 will not transform to α-phase until nylon is melt.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 118-122 [Abstract] ( 547 ) PDF (1808 KB)  ( 535 )
123 Study on Bladder Cancer Tissues with Raman Spectroscopy
WANG Lei1, FAN Jin-hai1*, GUAN Zhen-feng1, LIU You2, ZENG Jin1, HE Da-lin1, HUANG Li-qing2, WANG Xin-yang1, GONG Hui-ling3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0123-04
The scope of this research lies in diagnosis of bladder cancer through Raman spectra. The spectra of bladder cancer and normal bladder were measured by using laser confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy. Principal component analysis/support vector machines was applied to the spectral dataset to construct diagnostic algorithms, then to detect the accuracy of these algorithms to determine histological diagnosis by leave-one-out cross validation from its Raman spectrum. It was showed that the peak intensity of nucleic acid (782, 1 583 cm-1) in bladder cancer and protein (1 061, 1 295, 2 849, 2 881 cm-1) in normal bladder increased significantly. Additionally, Principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machines (SVM) provided an effective tool for differentiating the bladder cancer from normal bladder tissue. Excellent sensitivity (86.7%), specificity (87.5%), positive predictive value (92.9%), and negative predictive value (72.8%) for the diagnosis of bladder cancer were obtained by leave-one-out cross validation. It was concluded that Raman spectroscopy can be used to accurately identify bladder cancer in vitro, and it suggests the promising potential application of PCA/SVM-based Raman spectroscopy for the diagnosis of bladder cancer.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 123-126 [Abstract] ( 1313 ) PDF (1252 KB)  ( 558 )
127 Microstructure Study on Bismuth Triborate Crystal and Its Melt at High Temperature by Raman Spectroscopy
JI Zi-fang1, YOU Jing-lin1, 2*, SIMON Patrick2, WANG Yuan-yuan1, HOU Min1, WANG Li-hong1, ZHANG Guo-chun3, WAN Song-ming4, FU Pei-zhen3, WU Yi-cheng3, YIN Shao-tang4
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0127-05
Temperature dependent Raman spectra of BiB3O6 crystal and its melt were recorded and the microstructure of BiB3O6 melt was predicted. Multiple theoretical methods including quantum chemistry ab initio calculation and DFT (Density Function Theory) methods were applied to simulate the BiB3O6 crystal and melt structure and Raman spectra. It was demonstrated that B—O triangles and Bi lattice in the crystal reveal little affected in structure while B—O tetrahedra shows severe distortion with increasing temperature, especially B—O tetrahedra disappears after being completely melt. The microstructure of BiB3O6 melt consists of six-member ring, [B6O12]6-, which varies in bond lengths and angles individually. Cation Bi behaves to balance the charge of anion cluster, and the oxygen coordination number of cation Bi is 3, different from the crystal situation in which cation Bi is coordinated with 6 oxygens.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 127-131 [Abstract] ( 637 ) PDF (1751 KB)  ( 560 )
132 Preliminary Study on Identification of Oil Products Using Laser-Raman Fingerprint Spectrum
LOU Ting-ting1, 3, WANG Yun-qing1, LI Jin-hua1, SUN Pei-yan2, FENG Wei-wei1, GAO Zhen-hui2, CHEN Ling-xin1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0132-05
Laser-Raman spectroscopy technology was used for measuring and analyzing properties of oil products. Through comparing with the Raman shifts and relative Raman intensity ratios of the main fingerprint peaks, different kinds of oil products were identified successfully. Furthermore, the Raman spectra of the same type of petroleum products obtained from different private gas stations were measured and the petroleum qualities were detected. The favorable results were obtained in both oil identification and quality test. The present work provides a feasible method for quick, sensitive and nondestructive identification of oil products.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 132-136 [Abstract] ( 587 ) PDF (2156 KB)  ( 909 )
137 Effect of pH Perturbation on Rainwater Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence Characteristics
DENG Xun, GUO Wei-dong*, ZHUO Jian-fu
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0137-05
The influence of pH variation on the fluorescence characteristics of rainwater dissolved organic matter (DOM) was studied via excitation emission-matrix spectroscopy. A rainwater sample (pH 5.7) collected in Xiamen (China) in the summer of 2009 was adjusted to different pH values ranging from 3.2 to 10.7. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) decomposed the fluorescence matrices into four humic-like components (C1, C3, C4, and C5), one protein-like component (C2) and an unknown component (C6). As pH values of the sample increased from the initial value of 5.7 to 10.7, the fluorescence intensities of C1, C3, and C5 also increased, while those of C4 and C6 decreased gradually, resulting in an increasing contribution of humic-like components to total fluorescence. The opposite trend was observed when pH decreased to more acidic conditions and the unknown component (<250,330/386 nm) became dominant. The relative contribution of the protein-like component to the total fluorescence remained more or less constant as pH varied. In addition, the fluorescence index (FI), humification index (HIX) and the index of recent autochthonous contribution (BIX) were also affected by pH perturbation. It is therefore recommended that the pH of rainwater samples should be measured and reported in future studies to effectively evaluate such “pH effects” on rainwater DOM fluorescence characteristics.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 137-141 [Abstract] ( 1857 ) PDF (1839 KB)  ( 553 )
142 Application of Hyperspectral Fluorescence Image Technology in Detection of Early Rotten Oranges
LI Jiang-bo, WANG Fu-jie, YING Yi-bin, RAO Xiu-qin*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0142-05
Rottenness is most prevalent and devastating disease that threats citrus fruit. Automatic detection of early rottenness can enhance the competitiveness and profitability of the citrus industry. However, there is no efficient automatic detection technology at this time that could detect this disease. The navel orange was selected as research objective. Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging was used to detect early rottenness in orange. Optimum index factor (OIF) method was applied to identify the optimal band combination. 100% detection rate was achieved based on the optimal bands ratio image and two threshold values. The research showed that the proposed method can effectively overcome the affect from florescence effect because stem damage area and stem also can produce florescence under ultraviolet light. This study will lay a foundation for developing multispectral detection system used in on-line detection of early rottenness fruit.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 142-146 [Abstract] ( 541 ) PDF (2023 KB)  ( 886 )
147 Studies on Fluorescence Properties of a Novel Acylhydrazone Ligands and Its Sn Metal Complexes
GAO Xue-xi1, WANG Wen-jun1*, LIU Yun-long1, LI Da-cheng2, ZHANG Bing-yuan1, XU Jian-hua3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0147-05
The molecular structure and spectral properties of a novel acylhydrazone ligands 2-hydroxy-naphthaldehyde-5-chlorosalicyloylhydrazone (H3L) and its Sn metal complexes [(n-Bu2)Sn(HL)] in solution, crystal and thin films were investigated by using steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectrum.. The experimental results show that for H3L, compared with it in solution, the fluorescence intensity is enhanced as it is crystal and thin films, the fluorescence peak is red-shift. and the excited state lifetime is longer. The transition energies of the unimolecule is 240.2 kJ·mol-1. For (n-Bu2)Sn(HL), the fluorescence intensity is stronger as it is crystal than it is in solution and the fluorescence peak is red-shilft, the excited state lifetime is longer. The fluorescence is quenched as it is in thin films. The transition energies of the unimolecule is 230.4 kJ·mol-1. The fluorescence intensity of (n-Bu2)Sn(HL) is four times higher than the H3L. The excited state lifetime of (n-Bu2)Sn(HL) is longer than H3L too. In theory, these phenomena could be explained by that with the increase of the conjugated system and the rigid construction, the fluorescence intensity is stronger and the excited state lifetime is longer.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 147-151 [Abstract] ( 1526 ) PDF (1879 KB)  ( 499 )
152 Parallel Factor Analysis as an Analysis Technique for the Ratio of Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Peak in Taihu Lake
ZHU Peng1,2,3, LIAO Hai-qing2*, HUA Zu-lin1, XIE Fa-zhi2, TANG Zhi2, ZHANG Liang2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0152-05
The present paper proposes a new method to find the ratio of three-dimensional fluorescence peak. At first, the excitation-emission fluorescence matrix of water samples was treated with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and then fluorescence peaks intensity and ratio of fluorescence peak were obtained from the parallel factor analysis model. From the parallel factor analysis model, the same fluorescence peaks of different water samples lie at the same excitation-emission wavelength and the overlap of different fluorescence peaks of the same water sample is reduced. Analysing regional characteristic in Taihu Lake, the ratio of factor score and the ratio of fluorescence peak showed strong correlation.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 152-156 [Abstract] ( 192 ) PDF (2586 KB)  ( 608 )
157 Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell Based on Porphyrin Compounds
ZHANG Tian-hui1, 2, ZHAO Su-ling1*, PIAO Ling-yu2*, XU Zheng1, KONG Chao1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0157-05
Three kinds of porphyrins which can abbreviate as TPP, TPPCu and TMPPFeCl were synthesized by one-step method with mixed solvents. Then these porphyrin materials were used as donors to fabricate organic solar cells with PCBM as accepter by the solution processing of spin-coating method. The structure is ITO/porphyrin∶PCBM/Al. The photovoltaic characterizations of these devices were investigated. The device based on TPP∶PCBM shows the best performance with an open circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.52 V, a short circuit current (JSC) of 0.98 mA·cm-2, and fill factor (FF) of 30.1%. Then the influence of different weight ratio of TPP∶PCBM was researched. The best weight ratio of TPP∶PCBM is 1∶1. Increasing or decreasing the quatity of TPP would make JSC and VOC of the device deterioration and have little effect on the FF.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 157-161 [Abstract] ( 1639 ) PDF (1933 KB)  ( 561 )
162 A Comparison of Different Treatment Conditions on the Conformation Changes of Bovine Lactoferrin
WEN Peng-cheng1, 2,YU Dan-dan3,WANG Xin-xin1,ZHANG Lu-da2,REN Fa-zheng2,LEI Xin-gen4,GUO Hui-yuan2*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0162-04
In this study,the tertiary,secondary structures and disulfide bond changes of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) under 6 differents physico-chemical treatments were investigated by fluorescence,circular dichroism(CD) and UV-Vis absorption.A red shift from 333 to 354 nm in the fluorescence emission maximum (λmax) was observed in the bLF treated by 6 mol·L-1 GdnHCl,8 mol·L-1 Urea and 50 mmol·L-1 DTT simultaneously,meanwhile a large number of exposed hydrophobic groups were detected.However,there was no marked shift in λmax of bLF treated by heating (100 ℃,5 min),Ultrosonic(450 W,5 s,6 pulses) or β-ME(1%), of which fluorescence intensity decreased significantly compared with the untreated bLF. The results indicated that the mechanism of changes in tertiary structure of the former three methods were different from the latter three. The detection by CD showed that the α- helix structure vanished completely in the bLF treated by GdnHCl. However,there was no remarkable change in the secondary structure of the bLF treated by the other five methods.In addition,UV-Vis absorption suggested that disulfide bond was seriously destructed in the bLF treated by DTT and Ultrosonict,but GdnHCl,β-ME and heating induced a little damage merely. This study is instructive and meaningful to the further research on relationship between structure and activity of bLF.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 162-165 [Abstract] ( 882 ) PDF (1300 KB)  ( 549 )
166 Structural and Spectral Study of a Novel Lanthanide 2-hydroxynicotinic Acid Coordination Polymer
MEI Hong-xin, LI Guang-man, DENG Song, SUN Yan-qiong*, CHEN Yi-ping, ZHANG Han-hui*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0166-05
A novel lanthanide 2-hydroxynicotinic acid coordination polymer 1 {[LaL(HL)(H2O)3]1/3(SO4)2/3(H3O)2H2O}(H2L=2-hydroxynicotinic acid) has been synthesized under hydrothermal condition and characterized by crystal X-ray diffraction, IR, UV, TGA, two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) correlation spectroscopy with magnetic and thermal perturbation. In 1,La ions are connected by 2-hydroxynicotinic acid through both carboxylate oxygen atoms and oxygen atoms from hydroxyl group in pyridine to generate a 2D layer in the ab plane, these layers are further connected by weak interactions to form a 3D framework along c axis. The response of out-of-plane bending vibrations of N—H and C—H are remarkable in the 2D IR correlation spectra under magnetic perturbation, this may attributes to the inducement of π-electron cloud deformation under magnetic perturbation, ν4 vibrations from SO2-4 was also sensitive to magnetic perturbation. In addition, stretching vibrations from N—H are sensitive to thermal perturbation.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 166-170 [Abstract] ( 1560 ) PDF (2595 KB)  ( 601 )
171 In-Situ Monitoring Algorithm of Gases Poisonous Elements Concentration with Ultraviolet Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Based on Recursion Iterative Method
WANG Hui-feng1, JIANG Xu-qian2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0171-04
The key and challenge problem of in-situ monitoring poisonous elements of gases is how to separate the various gases absorption signal from mixed gases absorption spectroscopy and compute it’s accuracy concentration? Here we present a new algorithms in return recursion iteration based on Lambert-Beer principle. In the algorithms, recurred by the character of absorption peak of various gases in the band of 190~290 nm UV rays continuous spectroscopy and the character of twin element fold for absorbance are used. Firstly, the authors suppose that there is no absorption for others gases in the character absorption band for a certain gas, the authors can inference the initial concentration of the gas. Then the authors switch to another character spectroscopy, and put the photons that gases absorption out of the total number of absorbed photons that are measured. So we could get the initial concentration of another gas. By analogy the authros can get the initial concentration of all kinds of other poisonous elements. Then come back to the character spectroscopy of the first gas, the authors can get a new concentration of the first gas from the difference between the total number of absorbed photons and the photons that other gases absorption. By analogy the authors can get the iterative concentration of other gases, by irterating this process repeatly for some times until the measurement error of the adjacent gas concentration is smaller than a certain numerical value. Finally the authros can get the real and accurate concentration of all kinds of gases. Experiment shows that the authors can get the accurate concentration of all kinds of gases with the algorithm. The accuracy can be within 2%, and at the same time, it is easy enough to satisfy the necessity of real-time requirement. In addition it could be used to measure the concentration of many kinds of gas at a time. It is robust and suitable to be taken into practice.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 171-174 [Abstract] ( 552 ) PDF (1406 KB)  ( 493 )
175 Construction and Simplification of the Calibration Model for Spectral Analysis of Fuel Oil Properties Based on Mutual Information Method
HAO Yong, SUN Xu-dong, CAI Li-jun, LIU Yan-de*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0175-04
Near infrared diffuse reflectance (NIRS) and ultraviolet (UV) spectral analysis were adopted for quantitative determination of octane number and monoaromatics in fuel oil. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used for construction of vibrational spectral calibration models. Variables selection strategy based on mutual information (MI) theory was introduced to optimize the models for improving the precision and reducing the complexity. The results indicate that MI-PLSR method can effectively improve the predictive ability of the models and simplify them. For octane number models, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the number of calibration variables were reduced from 0.288 and 401 to 0.111 and 112, respectively, and correlation coefficient (R) was improved from 0.985 to 0.998. For monoaromatics models, RMSEP and the number of calibration variables were reduced from 0.753 and 572 to 0.478 and 37, respectively, and R was improved from 0.996 to 0.998. Vibrational spectral analysis combined with MI-PLSR method can be used for quantitative analysis of fuel oil properties, and improve the cost-effectiveness.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 175-178 [Abstract] ( 2294 ) PDF (1361 KB)  ( 550 )
179 Efficient Computation of Spectral Flux Normalization
LI Xiang-ru
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0179-04
Flux normalization is a key procedure in spectral data mining, and is important for the efficiency and accuracy of automatic processing of massive astronomical spectral data, information extraction and sharing. Since the usual implementation of flux normalizing methods is inefficient, the present work focuses on the algorithm designing of spectral flux normalization. Firstly, the authors investigated the limit efficiency characteristics of the available flux normalization methods, introduced four efficient flux normalizing algorithms, and studied their time complexity and space complexity. Secondly, the authors evaluated the efficiency of the proposed algorithms experimentally and horizontally based on the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) released spectral data. In the theoretical research, the main consideration is the computational complexity characteristics of the flux normalization methods when the data size increases unlimitedly. The experimental research focuses on the difference in the computational burden between the basic operations in different flux normalization methods. It is shown that, although the four flux normalization methods Smax, Smedian, Smean and Sunit belong to the same limit efficiency type, on the spectra with usual observing scale, Smax and Smedian are much more efficient than Smean and Sunit, and Sunit is the most inefficient one. This work is helpful for choosing the appropriate flux normalization method based on the size of spectra database and the scientific needs in automatic spectra analysis.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 179-182 [Abstract] ( 246 ) PDF (1088 KB)  ( 527 )
183 Experimental Study of Offshore Oil Thickness Hyperspectral Inversion Based on Bio-Optical Model
XIAO Jian-wei, TIAN Qing-jiu*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0183-05
Study on the regularity of thin oil film thickness and its reflectance plays an important role in understanding the mechanism of offshore oil slick and ocean hydrocarbon resources exploration. In this work, the thin oil film thickness of biological optical model is established, and introduced the simplified model of inversion thin oil film thickness information by using one single-band or by using two-band ratio image data. With the quantitative inversion test of thin oil film thickness through the natural shallow water and the crude oil sample, the variation rules of between oil spectral parameters and the thin oil film thickness are obtained. The study show that, the oil reflectance in visible and near infrared spectrum (450~800 nm) and the thin film thickness has high inverse correlation, and showed as negative exponent form decline with the increase of oil film thickness. Regarding the shallow water environment, the double band ratio inversion model of using ETM1/ETM3 band ratio can used to be eliminate the impact of sky scattering influence, and to overcome the single-band model fault of Inversion instability when used in different water quality regions, as the inversion result of the model’s correlation coefficient can reach 0.98, which is considered to be the ideal hydrocarbon content remote sensing surveying band. and combined with other types of remote sensing technology(such as ultraviolet-laser or SAR), it would provide more economic and precision services of oil total amount infromation for offshore oil exploration and oil spill monitoring.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 183-187 [Abstract] ( 1024 ) PDF (1350 KB)  ( 486 )
188 Non-Invasive Measurement of Human Blood Cholesterol Concentration Based on Dynamic Spectrum Method
SUO Yong-kuan1,2, LI Gang2, WANG Hui-quan2, LIN Ling2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0188-04
For non-invasive measurement of human blood cholesterol concentration, this experiment was carried out on 80 volunteers clinically. In vivo dynamic spectra of fingers were achieved and biochemical examinations of blood components contents including cholesterol were get as soon as possible. BP artificial neural network with inputs of dynamic spectra plus energy of harmonic waves processed by Principal Components Analysis(PCA) was used to establish the model of the total cholesterol values. The correlation between the predicted value and the true value of cholesterol is 96.48%. The maximum relative error is 25.44% and root-mean-square error of prediction is 0.242 6 mmol·L-1. The results show that PCA can make the process of computing faster and this study is another advance of dynamic spectra.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 188-191 [Abstract] ( 1876 ) PDF (1647 KB)  ( 629 )
192 Improving the Signal to Noise Ratio of Spectroscopy for Tongue Inspection by Optical Modulation
LI Gang1, ZHAO Jing1, LIN Ling1, WU Xiao-rong2*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0192-04
In order to solve the problem that the collected spectrum was influenced seriously by the environment light, optical modulation was used to improve the signal to noise ratio of spectroscopy-tongue inspection for the first time. First, reference light was modulated by reticle in this system; second, the reflect spectrum of the same measured object was collected under the condition that it was influenced by green, purple, red laser and environment light respectively; thirdly, the DFT was used to demodulate the collected spectrum data; the maximum harmonic components were extracted and normalized, then the spectral curve was drawn; by comparison, the spectral curves of the same measured object under different condition were almost the same. The experiment result showed that the optical modulation can remove the influence of the environment light; and this method can provide a new way to improve the signal to noise ratio of spectroscopy for tongue inspection.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 192-195 [Abstract] ( 497 ) PDF (1673 KB)  ( 496 )
196 Research on Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen Measurement by Characteristic Spectral Absorption Method
ZHU Jian-ming1, 2, CHEN Zhen-cheng2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0196-04
A serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement method was studied using immunochromatography-based colloidal gold-marked test-strips and characteristic spectral absorption method. Some LEDs in the range from 520 to 535 nm irradiated the test-strips sampled by PSA, and then a photodiode in the range from 520 to 540 nm measured the reflex light at the specific area. Accordingly, the absorbency of the strip could be calculated, then the relationship between PSA level and strip absorbency could be ascertained by linear fit method. The experimental measurement system was calibrated by different PSA standard solutions in this research. As a result, in the range between 5 to 50 ng·mL-1, the levels of PSA have a linear relationship with the absorbency of test-strips. Some experiments were completed by 21 different PSA standard solutions within that range, and then the correlation coefficient of the results is equal to 0.910, which proves that the proposed method for serum PSA level measurement is feasible.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 196-199 [Abstract] ( 656 ) PDF (1562 KB)  ( 509 )
200 Research on Accurate Measurement of Oxygen Content in Coal Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Air Environment
YIN Wang-bao, ZHANG Lei*, WANG Le, DONG Lei, MA Wei-guang, JIA Suo-tang
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0200-04
A technique about accurate measurement of oxygen content in coal in air environment using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is introduced in the present paper. Coal samples were excited by the laser, and plasma spectra were obtained. Combining internal standard method, temperature correction method and multi-line methods, the oxygen content of coal samples was precisely measured. The measurement precision is not less than 1.37% for oxygen content in coal analysis, so is satisfied for the requirement of coal-fired power plants in coal analysis. This method can be used in surveying, environmental protection, medicine, materials, archaeological and food safety, biochemical and metallurgy application.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 200-203 [Abstract] ( 1682 ) PDF (1290 KB)  ( 520 )
204 Study of Photosynthetic Characteristics of Transgenic Barley Based on Reflectance of Single Leaf
SUN Cai-xia1, YUAN Fei1, ZHANG Yu-lan2, CHEN Zhen-hua2, CHEN Li-jun2, WU Zhi-jie2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0204-05
Analysis of leaf reflectance can provide a rich source of information about plant physiological process, surface properties of the leaf, as well as internal structure. In the present paper, the changes of reflectance spectra and spectral indices for transgenic barley and non-transgenic control variety based on measurements of single leaf were studied. The results showed that the ratio spectra that calculated by dividing one reflectance spectrum of transgenic barley by its’ non-transgenic counterpart spectra were better to illustrate fine differences among spectra of leaves from different barley varieties. Ratio spectra varied between each pairs, but for most ratio spectrum indicated the reflectance differences between transgenic barley and non-transgenic counterpart were most obvious in the red spectrum around the chlorophyll peak and red edge (650~700 nm) and nearly identical in the green spectrum near 550 nm and within the near infra-red region (beyond 750 nm). Across the entire calculated spectrum, the changes of reflectance within the region from 650 to 700 nm seem to be very sensitive to respond to possible unintended effects of genetic modification. Six published reflectance indices, the red edge (λRE), the modified normalized difference vegetation index (mND), the structure-independent pigment index (SIPI), the ratio of reflectance in the red and green regions of the spectrum (RRed/RGreen), the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and the near-infrared reflectance at 800 nm (NIRR800) were used to make comparisons possible between species. The analyses of changes of these indices indicated that they were highly dependent on growth stages and barley varieties. Once indices described above have significant changes will mean that photosynthetic process, function and status of plants may be changed.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 204-208 [Abstract] ( 1707 ) PDF (1451 KB)  ( 501 )
209 Inversion of Winter Wheat Water Content with the Relationship between Canopy Parameters and Spectra Based on Different Irrigations
WANG Pei-juan1, XIE Dong-hui2, ZHANG Jia-hua1, XU Yun1,3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0209-05
In order to monitor the canopy water content of winter wheat, canopy spectrums of winter wheat with narrow-band were resampled to broad-band according to relative spectral response (RSR) function of TM5. And then, normalized different water index (NDWI) and simple water index (WI) were calculated with broad-band reflectance. Fuel moisture content (FMC) and equivalent water thickness for canopy (EWTc) were got using dry weight, fresh weight and leaf area (index). The results show that b7 of TM5 is better than b5 in inversing canopy water content of winter wheat. Meanwhile, NDWI is more suitable than WI. Suitable fitting equations are built with NDWI (b4, b7) for FMC and EWTc, whose R2 reaches to 0.576 9 and 0.695 6, respectively. Finally, the spatial mapping of canopy water content is done with fitting equations. The results demonstrate that canopy water content of winter wheat is high in west and low in east in the studied area, and it’s high in booting stage and low in milk stage.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 209-213 [Abstract] ( 1693 ) PDF (2633 KB)  ( 517 )
214 An Optical-Fiber-Sensor-Based Spectrophotometer for Soil Non-Metallic Nutrient Determination
HE Dong-xian1, HU Juan-xiu1, LU Shao-kun1, HE Hou-yong2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0214-05
In order to achieve rapid, convenient and efficient soil nutrient determination in soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, a portable optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer including immersed fiber sensor, flat field holographic concave grating, and diode array detector was developed for soil non-metallic nutrient determination. According to national standard of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer with JJG 178—2007, the wavelength accuracy and repeatability, baseline stability, transmittance accuracy and repeatability measured by the prototype instrument were satisfied with the national standard of Ⅲ level; minimum spectral bandwidth, noise and excursion, and stray light were satisfied with the national standard of Ⅳ level. Significant linear relationships with slope of closing to 1 were found between the soil available nutrient contents including soil nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, available phosphorus, available sulfur, available boron, and organic matter measured by the prototype instrument compared with that measured by two commercial single-beam-based and dual-beam-based spectrophotometers. No significant differences were revealed from the above comparison data. Therefore, the optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer can be used for rapid soil non-metallic nutrient determination with a high accuracy.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 214-218 [Abstract] ( 674 ) PDF (2531 KB)  ( 541 )
219 Flow Injection-Spectrophotometric Determination of Total Dissolved Nitrogen in Seawater Based on Quantificational Solenoid Valves
HAN Bin1, CAO Lei1, 2, ZHENG Li1, ZANG Jia-ye1, WANG Xiao-ru1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0219-04
Using three pipe clamp solenoid valves to replace the traditional six-port valve for sample quota, a set of multi-channel flow injection analyzer was designed in the present paper. The authors optimized optimum instrumental testing condition, and realized determination and analysis of total dissolved nitrogen in seawaters. The construction of apparatus is simple and it has the potential to be used for analysis of total dissolved nitrogen. The sample throughput of total dissolved nitrogen was 27 samples per hour. The linear range of total dissolved nitrogen was 50.0~1 000.0 μgN·L-3 (r≥0.999). The detection limit was 7.6 μgN·L-3. The recovery of total dissolved nitrogen was 87.3%~107.2%. The relative standard deviation for total dissolved nitrogen was 1.35%~6.32% (n=6). After the t-test analysis, it does not have the significance difference between this method and national standard method. It is suitable for fast analysis of total dissolved nitrogen in seawater.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 219-222 [Abstract] ( 770 ) PDF (1687 KB)  ( 533 )
223 Progress in Combination of Gel Electrophoresis and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Trace Elements Determination in Proteins
WANG Ying2, GUO Yan-li1, 2*, YUAN Hong-lin1*, WEI Yong-feng2, YAN Hong-tao2, CHEN Hui-hui2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0223-06
Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has become a very efficient and sensitive trace, ultratrace, and surface analytical technique for the in situ study of the concentration and distribution of the elements in life sciences with high spatial resolution. It is being used more and more frequently in biological, medical materials and protein research, which will lead to a better understanding of physiology and pathology process in cells and tissues. The present review mainly introduces the strategies of combination of gel electrophoresis (GE) with LA-ICP-MS for the quantification of trace elements in proteins, including the proteins separation, elements detection and calibration methods. The paper emphasizes the basic conditions of the proteins separation, focusing on the stability of proteins during GE and the treatment methods of staining and drying of the gel to enable successful detection of the elements by LA-ICP-MS. In addition, the application of GE-LA-ICP-MS in phosphoproteins, selenoproteins and metal-binding proteins is introduced in detail. The prospects and challenge for this technique are discussed as well for further study.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 223-228 [Abstract] ( 643 ) PDF (1646 KB)  ( 567 )
229 Use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Assessment of Biomonitor Plants for Lead, Cadmium and Copper Pollution
Gokce Kaya1, Mehmet Yaman2*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0229-06
Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304~602, 0.4~0.44 and 31~37 mg·kg-1, respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg·kg-1 was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima>Morus sp.>Juglans regia L.>Ficus carica L.>Cydonia oblonga Miller>Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L., Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angustifolia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 229-234 [Abstract] ( 193 ) PDF (987 KB)  ( 494 )
235 Speciation Analysis of Cd in PM10 and PM2.5 during Heating Period in Urumqi
WANG Wen-quan, ZHU Xin-ping, ZHENG Chun-xia*, Aikebaier·Yilahong, LIU Bo, WEI Li-yuan
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0235-04
PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected on campus of Xinjiang Agricultural University during Dec. 14—28, 2009, and the speciation of Cd in PM10 and PM2.5 and its health risk index was analyzed. The results showed that the pollution caused by PM10 and PM2.5 was severe here during the heating period; Cd in PM10 and PM2.5 was of concentration 3.642 and 1.964 ng·m-3 respectively, mainly in the form of residue; however, Cd in PM2.5 had a higher bioavailability than that in PM10. The carcinogenic risk of Cd in PM10 and PM2.5 was 6.56×10-6 and 3.46×10-6 respectively, which were both acceptable.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 235-238 [Abstract] ( 693 ) PDF (1363 KB)  ( 489 )
239 Determination of Nine Hazardous Elements in Textiles by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer after Microwave-Assisted Dilute Nitric Acid Extraction
CHEN Fei1, 2, XU Dian-dou2*, TANG Xiao-ping3, CAO Jing1,LIU Ya-ting1, DENG Jian1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0239-05
Textiles are easily contaminated by heavy metals in the course of processing. In order to monitor the quality of textiles, a new method was developed for simultaneous determination of arsenic, antimony, lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel and mercury in textiles by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave-assisted dilute nitric acid extraction. After optimizing extraction conditions, we ultimately selected 5% nitric acid as extractant and 5 min as extraction time with the extraction temperature of 120 ℃ and instrument power of 400W in the microwave-assisted extraction procedure. Nine hazardous elements were detected sequentially by ICP-OES. The results showed that the detection limits were 0.3~15 μg·L-1 and the recoveries 73.6%~105% with the RSDs (n=3) of 0.1%~3%. The proposed method was successfully used to determine nine elements in cotton, wool, terylene and acrylic.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 239-243 [Abstract] ( 739 ) PDF (1410 KB)  ( 561 )
244 The Application of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Automatic Transmission Fault Detection
CHEN Li-dan, CHEN Kai-kao
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0244-04
The authors studied the innovative applications of atomic absorption spectrometry in the automatic transmission fault detection. After the authors have determined Fe, Cu and Cr contents in the five groups of Audi A6 main metal in automatic transmission fluid whose travel course is respectively 10~15 thousand kilometers, 20~26 thousand kilometers, 32~38 thousand kilometers, 43~49 thousand kilometers, and 52~58 thousand kilometers by atomic absorption spectrometry, the authors founded the database of primary metal content in the Audi A6 different mileage automatic transmission fluid (ATF). The research discovered that the main metal content in the automatic transmission fluid increased with the vehicles mileage and its normal metal content level in the automatic transmission fluid is between the two trend lines. The authors determined the main metal content of automatic transmission fluid which had faulty symptoms and compared it with its database value. Those can not only judge the wear condition of the automatic transmission which had faulty symptoms but also help the automobile detection and maintenance personnel to diagnose automatic transmission failure reasons without disintegration. This reduced automobile maintenance costs, and improved the quality of automobile maintenance.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 244-247 [Abstract] ( 388 ) PDF (1188 KB)  ( 527 )
248 The Chemical and Structural Analysis of Tibetan Medicine Fanshi
LI Cen1, Lengbencairang2, Sanglao2, Gongbudongzhi2, DU Yu-zhi1, WEI Li-xin1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0248-04
The element and microstructure of Tibetan medicine Fanshi were investigated, in order to explore the material basis of Fanshi. X-ray fluorescence spectroscope (XRF), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to assay the Fanshi samples from different Tibetan regions. XRF and ICP-OES analysis show that the main elements in Fanshi are Ca, O and C, but also contain some kinds of minor elements, such as Mg, Al, Na, Si, K, Ag, Ba, Fe, Mn, S, Sr, Zn and so on. XRD analysis shows that the main material structures in Fanshi are (MgxCa1-x)CO3 (rhombohedral, R-3c) and CaCO3(rhombohedral, R-3c), but also exists a small quantity of CaCO3(orthorhombic, Pmcn), SiO2 (hexagonal, P3221), etc. The data of element and structure in Tibetan medicine Fanshi have been acquired by XRD, ICP-OES and XRD, and that is beneficial to exploring the material basis of Fanshi.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 248-251 [Abstract] ( 437 ) PDF (1069 KB)  ( 466 )
252 Analysis of 14 Elements for Jinhua Bergamot by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and Elemental Analyser
WANG Zhi-gang, YU Hong-mei
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0252-03
The content of the elements C, H, O and N in Jinhua bergamot was analysed by using Vario Ⅲelemental analyser, the bergamot sample was scanned by using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with PW2400 wavelength dispersion, and the content of the elements Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was analysed by using IQ+ analytical method. It turned out that the result is more ideal if the content of the elements C, H, O and N is processed as fix phase,and the analytical result is more ideal if, to prevent the sample skin from coming off, the sample is wrapped with mylar film with the film coefficient adjusted.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 252-254 [Abstract] ( 661 ) PDF (944 KB)  ( 515 )
255 Rapid Identification of Variable Star Spectrum Based on Information Entropy
CAI Jiang-hui1,2, MENG Wen-jun2, SUN Shi-wei3, ZHAO Xu-jun1, ZHANG Ji-fu1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0255-04
Variable star is very important for mankind studying cosmic origin and evolution. For studying variable star, the chief difficulty results from the filtration and identification of variable star, that is how to validly identify variable star spectra from large high-dimensional star spectra data. The traditional outlier definition tries to find the difference between the outlier data and the general model by different ways, and then the result is quantitatively analyzed and filtrated. However, the time complexity of this method is over size and its results are inscrutable and unaccountable. Information entropy is a measure of the uncertainty associated with a random variable. In the present paper, information entropy is imported as the standard of dataset common mode. A novel method is proposed to identify the variable star spectrum rapidly based on information entropy. The time complexity of this method is observably reduced and the man-made impact is effectively overcome. The preliminary experimental results based on Sloan star spectrum data show that the method is workable for rapid identification of variable star spectrum.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 255-258 [Abstract] ( 1426 ) PDF (1393 KB)  ( 505 )
259 Study on Uniformity of Optical Field in Static Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Lü Jin-guang1,2, LIANG Jing-qiu1*, LIANG Zhong-zhu1, FU Jian-guo1,2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0259-05
Since the Fourier transform spectrometer based on multi-micro mirrors samples the interferogram image which corresponds to each OPD in the transverse optical field, the spatial distribution of the irradiance has much effect on the quality of the interferogram. In the present paper, distribution function is introduced in this spectrometer system. By means of simulation, the contrast of the interferogram modulated by distribution function is depressed in the fringe area and the concomitant line appears in the spectrum. According to theory analysis, the decline of the contrast lies on the distribution function which scans the interferogram periodically. And the concomitant line is the effect of the spectrum shift, which belongs to the modulation function. Finally, the difference image and conversed recovery arithmetic are proposed. Via the simulation, the conversed recovery arithmetic can recover the interferogram and the spectrum evidently.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 259-263 [Abstract] ( 582 ) PDF (1884 KB)  ( 551 )
264 Solving Resolution of Diffraction Gratings Using Coefficients of Zernike Polynomials
YU Hai-li1,2 ,QI Xiang-dong1,Bayanheshig1,TANG Yu-guo1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0264-04
It is hard and costly to test resolution directly, because the focal length of testing equipment could be nearly ten meters. Solving resolution by diffraction wavefront aberration indirectly is an effective solution to this problem. A normalization model of solving resolution using fitting coefficients of Zernike polynomials was established based on the spectral imaging theory of Fourier optics. The relationship between resolution and wavefront aberration of diffraction gratings was illustrated by this model. Finally, a new method of testing resolution using fitting coefficients of Zernike polynomials was proposed. According to this method, the resolution of a grating is tested by ZYGO interferometer indirectly. Compared with direct method, results indicate that the error of indirect method is less than 4.22%, and this method could be an effective way to avoid the difficulty of direct method to solve resolution. Meanwhile, this method can be used in ZYGO interferometer to solve resolution by wavefront testing easily.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 264-267 [Abstract] ( 1530 ) PDF (1264 KB)  ( 483 )
268 Spectral Calibration of the Hyperspectral Imager Based on Atmosphere Absorption
ZHANG Chun-lei1,2,XIANG Yang1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0268-05
The hyperspectral imager is a new type remote sensor which can collect both the image and the spectral information of the scene. The objective of the spectral calibration of the hyperspectral imager is to determine the central wavelength and spectral width of each channel. The spectral sampling interval of the hyperspectral imager calculated and the atmosphere absorption of the atmosphere were used to calibrate the central wavelength and spectral width of the channels of the hyperspectral imager in the present article. Comparison was made between the spectral calibration result and a spectrometer which has high spectral resolution and the results were improved. The results indicate that the spectral calibration of this method can achieve precision of 1 nm.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 268-272 [Abstract] ( 377 ) PDF (2075 KB)  ( 508 )
273 Research on the Non-Source Temperature Calibration of Multispectral Pyrometer
SUN Xiao-gang,SUN Kun,DAI Jing-min
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0273-05
At present, Multispectral pyrometer used in high-temperature measurement has already had high resolution and high signal to noise ratio. However, the non-source temperature (higher than 3 000 ℃) calibration falls far behind the development of multispectral pyrometer and has already seriously hindered the precision and application range of the pyrometer. In order to break through the limitation of calibration of non-source temperature, a new calibration method was put forward in the present paper. The temperature-voltage (T-U) model was formed based on power function where output voltage U of the multispectral pyrometer was derived from its corresponding known temperature point. Based on the model, derivative least square method was used to obtain the parameters of the model to realize the non-source temperature calibration. Both theoretical and experimental data proved the efficiency and precision of the calibration method. In addition, within the spectral range of high-temperature measurement pyrometer (0.4~1.1 μm), the range of non-source temperature calibration with precision better than 3‰, 1% and 3% respectively have been divided theoretically.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 273-277 [Abstract] ( 653 ) PDF (1203 KB)  ( 496 )
278 Research on the Interlaced Encoding Pixels in Hadamard Transform Spectral Imager Based on DMD
XU Jun1,2, HU Bing-liang1*, FENG Da-zheng3, ZHANG Wen1,2, YAN Peng1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0278-05
The key innovation in Hadamard transform spectral imager (HTSI) introduced recently is the use of digital micro-mirror device (DMD) to encode spectral information. However, it brings some new problems for us to solve synchronously. An interlaced encoding phenomenon caused by the application of DMD to our HTSI was investigated and analyzed. These interlaced encoding pixels were not encoded based on Hadamard transform; therefore they should be processed specially in spectrum recovery. To improve the quality of the recovered spectral images, a positioning method and a decoding method for the interlaced encoding pixels were proposed. In our experiment, we first directed a beam of laser into our HTSI to fill the field of view and labeled the positions of the interlaced encoding pixels. Then we recorded two groups of the encoded images of the target by changing the positions of all the encoding channels on the DMD. The interlaced encoding pixels could be distinguished easily by observing the number of non-zero constants and zero elements in a column vector which is made up of the gray values of a pixel of the encoded images in sequence. The interlaced encoding pixels of the first group of the encoded images turned into the normal Hadamard encoding pixels of the second group of the encoded images. The interlaced encoding pixels of the first group of the encoded images can be decoded through applying inverse Hadamard transform to the corresponding pixels of the second group of the encoded images. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the decoding method.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 278-282 [Abstract] ( 1475 ) PDF (2192 KB)  ( 503 )
283 Small Imaging Spectrometer for the Inspection of Fruit Quality
LIU Yu-juan1, 2, TANG Yu-guo1*, CUI Ji-cheng1, 2, Bayanheshig1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2012)01-0283-04
Imaging spectrometer can acquire spatial and spectral information of the target at the same time, achieve high-precision, non-destructive, non-contamination and large area instantaneous inspection of the fruit. In order to get the imaging spectrum of the fruit, compact imaging spectrometer with convex grating produced by self was designed, it has the advantages of good performance, small volume and low weight, its resolution at 578 nm is 2.1 nm, and spectral line bend and chromatic distortion are both smaller than 0.6%. Laboratory test of the imaging spectrometer and the experiment of getting the imaging spectrum of apple were done, and the result shows that the imaging spectrometer satisfies the design requirement and can acquire the imaging spectrum of apple rapidly with high precision for inspection of fruit quality.
2012 Vol. 32 (01): 283-286 [Abstract] ( 626 ) PDF (1689 KB)  ( 498 )