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2010 Vol. 30, No. 09
Published: 2010-09-01

 
       光谱学与光谱分析
2305 Collision-Induced Vibrational Energy Transfer: K2[11Σ+u(v′=2)]+He,H2→K2[11Σ+u(v′=1,3)]+He,H2
WANG Shu-ying1,2,LIU Jing2,DAI Kang2,SHEN Yi-fan2*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2305-04
Collisional energy transfer processes K2[11Σ+u(v′=2)]+He,H2→K2[11Σ+u(v′=1,3)]+He,H2 were studied by laser induced fluorescence under gas cell conditions. During the experiments, the cell temperature was kept constant at 420K.The buffer gas pressure was varied over the range from 40 to 250 Pa, K2 molecules were irradiated with pulses of radiation from an OPO laser, populating K2[11Σ(v′=2)] by photon absorption. The resulting fluorescence included the direct component emitted in the decay of the optically excited state and the sensitized components arising from collisionally populated states. The decay signal of time-resolved fluorescence from 11Σ+(v′=2)→11Σ+g(v″=0) transition was monitored. In the early period after excitation, only very little population in states v′=1 or 3 had yet accumulated, the rate of collisional activation to the state v′=2 was negligible. The decay curve of the v′=2→v″=0 was treated as a single exponential function. From the measurement of the time-resolved fluorescence, the semilog plot was shown. The slope yielded the effective lifetime of the v′=2→v″=0 transition. Based on the Stern-Volmer equation, the radiative lifetime (36±7) ns was obtained. The total cross sections for deactivation of 11Σ(v′=2) state by means of collisions with He and H2 are (3.0±0.5)×10-16 cm2 and (6.4±1.2)×10-15 cm2, respectively.The radiative lifetimes of 11Σ(v′=1,3) states can also be determined through time-resolved fluorescence in pure K vapor. The time-integrated intensities of 11Σ(v′=1,2,3)→11Σg(v″=0) transition at different He or H2 pressure were measured.The ratio of fluorescence intensities versus 1/P(He, H2) can be fitted by a straight line. The slopes yield the cross sections σ(v′=2→v′=1)=(1.4±0.5)×10-16 cm2 and (3.2±1.0)×10-15 cm2; σ(v′=2→v′=3)=(1.2±0.4)×10-16 cm2 and (2.6±0.9)×10-15 cm2 for He and H2, respectively. Cross sections for the effective quenching of the v′=1,2,3 states were also determined. To our knowledge, the cross-sections for these processes are reported for first time.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2305-2308 [Abstract] ( 701 ) PDF (1415 KB)  ( 393 )
2309 Study on Vibrational Temperature and Gas Temperature in a Hollowneedle-Plate Discharge Plasma
DONG Li-fang, LIU Wei-yuan, YANG Yu-jie, WANG Shuai
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2309-03
A 1.6-3 cm long plasma torch was generated when argon gas was introduced by using a hollowneedle-plate discharge device working in atmosphere. The vibrational temperature and the gas temperature at plasma root and tip were studied by using optical emission spectrum at different argon gas flow. The gas temperature was obtained by comparing experimental line shape of OH radicals band around 309 nm with its simulated line shape. The vibrational temperature was calculated using N2 second positive band system 3Π-3Π. It was found that the gas temperatures at arc root and arc tip are equal and they decrease with the argon flow rate increasing. The gas temperature decreases from 350 to 300 K when argon flow rate increases from 3.0 to 6.5 mL·min-1. The vibrational temperature at arc tip (1 950 K) is higher than that at arc root (1 755 K) under a low gas flow rate (e.g. 3.0 mL·min-1). With gas flow rate increasing, the vibrational temperature at both tip and root decreases, but the decreasing rate at arc tip is faster than that at arc root. When gas flow is larger, the vibrational temperatures at tip and root tend to be equal.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2309-2311 [Abstract] ( 536 ) PDF (1382 KB)  ( 401 )
2312 Preparation and Luminescence of Eu3+/Yb3+ Codoped ZrO2 Powders
CHENG Xue-rui,WEI Xian-tao,CHEN Yong-hu*,YIN Min
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2312-05
Samples of Eu3+/Yb3+ co-doped ZrO2 powders were prepared by co-precipitation method. The dependence on the sintering temperature and doping concentration of the structure and luminescence was studied. The results confirmed that the sintering temperature has significant influence on the crystalline phases of ZrO2. As the sintering temperature increased the tetragonal phase was transformed into monoclinic phase. After sintered at 1 150 ℃, single monoclinic phase was observed. In contrast, with the increase in the doping concentration of Yb3+, the crystalline phase was also changed, and the monoclinic phase was transformed back to tetragonal phase. With 1% Eu3+ and 10% Yb3+ doping, single tetragonal phase presents. It was observed that the luminescent properties of Eu3+ ions in two structures were different. Experiment results reveal that the luminescence can be affected by both sintering temperature and doping concentration. With single Yb3+ doping, no NIR emission was observed under ultraviolet light excitation (270 nm). However, with Eu3+/Yb3+ codoping, NIR emission around 980 nm from Yb3+ (2F5/22F7/2) was observed under the same excitation. Furthermore, it is confirmed that Yb3+ has the same excitation spectrum with Eu3+. This down-conversion result indicates that there is an energy transfer process between Eu3+ and Yb3+. Cooperative energy transfer process and cross-relaxation process were assigned as the possible mechanism for the near-infrared emission of Yb3+.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2312-2316 [Abstract] ( 1064 ) PDF (1895 KB)  ( 377 )
2317 Study on the Enhanced Luminescence of GdTaO4∶Eu3+ Phosphors by Li+ Codopant
FU Shang-yi, GU Mu*, LIU Xiao-lin, NI Chen, LIU Bo, HUANG Shi-ming
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2317-04
The XRD, emission and IR transmission spectra of Li-doped GdTaO4∶Eu3+ phosphors were measured. Judd-Ofelt theory was applied, and the intensity parameters Ω2 of Eu3+ for optical transition were calculated. The results show that Li+ codoping can enhance the luminescence intensity of GdTaO4∶Eu3+. The intensity can be improved up to 1.7 and 1.5 times, respectively, when x=0.06 and 0.10. The phenomenon results not from the assumption that Li+ codopant can reduce the crystal symmetry of GdTaO4∶Eu3+ so as to relax the parity forbidden transition, but from the flux effect of Li+ codopant which can improve the crystallinity of GdTaO4∶Eu3+ and suppress the Gd2O3 and Ta2O5 hetero phases. Gd0.92-xLixTaO4∶Eu3+0.08 has not only quite a good crystallinity but also less Gd2O3 and Ta2O5 hetero phases when x=0.06 or 0.10. Therefore, their luminescence intensities can be improved evidently.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2317-2320 [Abstract] ( 1659 ) PDF (1338 KB)  ( 391 )
2321 Energy Transfer and Mid-Infrared Luminescence Properties of Tm3+/Dy3+ Codoped Chalcohalide Glasses
ZHANG Peng-jun1, DAI Shi-xun1, 2*, CAO Ying1, PENG Bo2, XU Tie-feng1, NIE Qiu-hua1, ZHANG Xiang-hua1, 3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2321-05
A series of chalcohalide glasses based on the composition 0.9(Ge25Ga5S70)-0.1CsI doped with the different Tm3+/Dy3+ ions ratio were synthesized by melt-quenching technique. The absorption spectra, and mid-infrared fluorescence of different glass samples under 800 nm laser excitation were measured. The results prove that, Tm3+ is an efficient sensitizer, which can enhance the Dy3+: 2.9 μm fluorescence intensity significantly. A decrease in the intensity of 1.8 μm fluorescence and lifetimes of the Tm3+: 3F4 level occurred with increasing the concentration of Dy3+ ions from 0 to 1 Wt% where Tm3+ concentration was fixed to 0.5 Wt%. Also a wide spectral overlap between Tm3+: 1.8 μm emission and the absorption of Dy3+: 6H15/26H11/2 showed that the effective energy transfer between the two rare-earth ions was mainly attributed to the resonance energy from Tm3+: 3F4 to Dy3+: 6H11/2 level.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2321-2325 [Abstract] ( 355 ) PDF (1637 KB)  ( 394 )
2326 Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Europium(Ⅲ) Complexes
ZHOU He-feng1,2,ZHANG Ting1,2 HAO Yu-ying1,3,XU Hui-xia1,2,WANG Hua1,2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2326-05
Three types of europium complexes were synthesized by introducing benzoylacetone as the first ligand and 1,10-phenanthroline, triphenylphosphine oxide, 2,2’-bipyridyl as the second ligand, respectively. The properties of above materials were characterized by infrared absorption spectra, UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra. Then, it was discussed that the different second ligands of europium complexes can affect their luminescence properties, and their intramolecular energy transfer models had been set up. The results indicated that ligands and complexes have a strong absorption of UV light and the three types of europium complexes exhibit characteristic luminescence of europium ion when excited by UV light. In addition, it is suggested that the fluorescence yield of europium complexes mostly depend on both the energy difference between the second ligand and the Eu3+ ion and the energy difference between the second ligand and the first ligand.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2326-2330 [Abstract] ( 1710 ) PDF (1700 KB)  ( 425 )
2331 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Fluorescence Property of Mn-Doped ZnSe Nanoparticles
HAN Dong-mei1, 2, SONG Chun-feng1, LI Xiao-yu1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2331-04
Transition metal doped Ⅱ-Ⅳ nanocrystals, which are expected to substitute for CdSe quantum dots as a new class of fluorescent label, obtain widespread concerns. In the present paper, Mn- doped ZnSe nanoparticles were prepared by microwave-irradiation method. Different organic amines were chosen. The effects of ligand and reaction conditions on the morphology and optical properties were investigated. TEM, EDS and photoluminescence spectra were used to investigate their morphology, structure and optical performance. The results showed that the Mn-doped ZnSe nanoparticles were orange and their average size was 200-500 nm. They had structured surface and single crystal wurtzite structure. The emission peak at about 530 nm was detected in the photoluminescence spectrum, which was attributable to Mn2+ transition emission. The effects of different ligands and doping ratio (Mn∶Zn) on the photoluminescence properties were significant.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2331-2334 [Abstract] ( 1105 ) PDF (1467 KB)  ( 745 )
2335 Electroluminescence Character of Novel Unsymmetry Substituted Phthalocyanines
XIA Dao-cheng1, 3, LI Wan-cheng2*, HAN Shuang1, CHENG Chuan-hui4, LI Quan-quan1,WANG Jin1, ZHANG Wei1, LI Zhu1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2335-05
The authors for the first time fabricated OLEDs employing novel phthalocynines: 2(3)-(p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(1), 2(3),16(17)-di(p-tert-butyl-phenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(2)and 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(3) as light emitting layer, and their electroluminescence character was studied. The final structures of three-layer OLEDs based on copper 2(3)-(p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine (1)and 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(3)were ITO/NPB(40 nm)/Pc(30 nm)/AlQ(43.5 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al(120 nm). The structure of three-layer OLED based on 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine (3) was ITO/NPB(30 nm)/Pc(30 nm) /BCP(20 nm)/AlQ(30 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al(120 nm). Room-temperature electroluminescence was observed at about 869 nmand 1 062 nm for 2(3)-( p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(1);room-temperature electroluminescence of 2(3),16(17) -di(p-tert-butyl-phenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(2) was found at about 1 050 nm and 1 110 nm; and Room-temperature electroluminescence of 2(3), 9(10), 16(17)-tri (p-tert-butylphenoxy) copper phthalocyanine(3) was studied at about 1 095 and 1 204 nm . The emission wavelengths and the half bandwidths were quite different for the phthalocyanine, which may be due to the differences in the number of substituted and the molecular aggregations in vacuum sublimed films. The difference in Stokes shift relaxation was also induced by the molecular aggregations.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2335-2339 [Abstract] ( 1497 ) PDF (1995 KB)  ( 429 )
2340 Effects of Pulsed Electric Fields and Heat Treatments on SPI Structure Analyzed by FTIR
LIU Yan-yan1, ZENG Xin-an1*,CHEN Xiao-dong2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2340-05
The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) under 50 kV·cm-1 as well as heat treatments on the secondary structure of soy protein isolate (SPI) were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) method in the present paper. A set of self-designed and made PEF equipment was used. It was demonstrated from the FTIR spectra that the PEF treatment under 50 kV·cm-1 had induced the increase in hydrogen bonds amidst in the intermolecule and intramolecule of SPI, and the increase in C—O—O bonds stretch vibration and the PO or P—O—C stretch vibration, which is positive relative to the increase in the time of PEF treatment. It was shown that after PEF treatment, the ratio of α-helix and β-sheet structure in SPI was decreased by 5.9% and 0.7%, respectively. On the other hand, the ratio of β-turn and side chain vibration structure was obviously increased by 7.5% and 9.6% at the treatment time of 1 600 μs, respectively. Comparatively the effect of heat treatments with 90 ℃ for 30 min on the C—O—O bonds stretch vibration and the PO or P—O—C stretch vibration is more evident, but the effect of which on the secondary structure of SPI is less. So it is concluded that the effect mechanism of PEF and HT on SPI structure is significantly different.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2340-2344 [Abstract] ( 1690 ) PDF (1519 KB)  ( 776 )
2345 Cr(Ⅵ) Adsorption Mechanism on Rice Husk Ash Burned at Low Temperature by Method of IR Spectra
FAN Chun-hui1,ZHANG Ying1*,ZHANG Ying-chao1,LI Jing1,Benny Chefetz2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2345-05
Boehm titration method was used to analyze functional groups on cell surface of rice husk ash burned at low temperature in the present paper. Effects of initial pH value and temperature on Cr(Ⅵ) adsorption were studied, adsorption capacity was tested with the help of kinetic models and adsorption isotherms, instruments of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) and scanning electron microscope(SEM) were used to check characteristics and adsorption mechanism of Cr(Ⅵ). The results indicated that optimal removing rate was achieved at initial pH value 5, and pH values of aqueous solution changed little before and after adsorption process. The adsorbent of rice husk ash could remove Cr(Ⅵ) effectively, and the maximum removing rate could be 95% with Cr(Ⅵ) concentration 20 mg·L-1 and achieve 1-2 level of state standard(GB8978—1996). The adsorption process fits pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm better, the maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(Ⅵ) was 3.277 6 mg·g-1. Results of FTIR showed that amide Ⅱ band, Si—O—Si, O—Si—O were important for Cr(Ⅵ) removal. SEM micrographs revealed that series of needle-shaped precipitation appeared on cell surface, and inorganic precipitation mechanism and redox mechanism might work in the test. As a kind of low cost adsorbent, rice husk ash can be applied to remove heavy metals in environment with great potential.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2345-2349 [Abstract] ( 2693 ) PDF (1711 KB)  ( 411 )
2350 Components of Urinary Crystallites in Urine of Uric Acid Stone Formers and Its Relationship with Formation of Stones
HUANG Zhi-jie, TAN Jin, OUYANG Jian-ming*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2350-05
The components, zeta potential, morphology of nanocrystallites in urines of 10 uric acid stone formers as well as their relationship with the formation of uric acid stones were comparatively studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The urine pH of uric acid stone formers was relatively low within the range of 4.8 to 5.7. The main constituent of urinary crystallites was uric acid. Their particle size distribution was highly uneven, ranging from several nanometers to several tens of micrometers, and obvious aggregation was observed. The zeta potential of urinary crystallites in ten lithogenic patients was -6.02 mV, which was higher than that in ten normal subjects (-10.1 mV). After drug therapies (potassium citrate was taken), the urine pH value of the uric acid stone formers increased to 6.5 or so, and at this pH value most of the uric acid had changed to urate. Since the solubility of urate increased greatly than uric acid, the risk of the formation of uric acid stone reduced. The results in this paper showed that there was a close relationship among stone components, urinary crystallites composition and urine pH.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2350-2354 [Abstract] ( 1104 ) PDF (1693 KB)  ( 740 )
2355 Microfibril Angle Prediction of Eucalyptus pellita Wood Samples Based on Radial and Tangential Section by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
ZHAO Rong-jun1,ZHANG Li2,HUO Xiao-mei1,REN Hai-qing1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2355-05
Near infrared spectroscopy(NIR)technique was applied to predict wood microfibril angle(MFA) of eucalyptus pellita in radial /tangential section. The MFA of small clear increment core samples were measured by X-ray diffractometry. After collecting the near infrared reflectance spectra of each sample,the NIR spectra were preprocessed with the second-derivative and the regression models were built for certain spectra. The calibration models were established using at least 159 samples with the partial least squares method and validated with full cross validation method. The results showed that high correlation coefficients were obtained between the laboratory-determined data and NIR fitted data. The finding suggests that an NIR instrument could be calibrated to estimate the limited MFA range of the increment core samples of eucalyptus pellita in radial/tangential section rapidly. Further work is required using different species wood sample sets that display a wide range of MFA variation.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2355-2359 [Abstract] ( 1599 ) PDF (1828 KB)  ( 392 )
2360 Study on Brain Tissue Characteristics of Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease Based on Functionality Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRs) Technology
HU Guang-xia1, QIAN Zhi-yu1*, SUN Tao2, YANG Tian-ming3, WANG Wen-hong3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2360-05
Functionality near infrared spectroscopy(fNIRs) technology was utilized in the present paper to explore functional properties of brain tissue of rat model of Parkinson’s disease(PD). Imaging data of rat model were detected by small animal MRI and CT; and characteristic parameters of striatum of rat brain were detected by fNIRs system. Experimental results show that, between PD and normal rat, there is no obvious change in morphological structure, but significant differences existed in reduced scattering coefficient (μ′s) and cerebral blood volume(CBV) of rat striatum; there exists correlation between parameters(μ′s, CBV) obtained by fNIRs and parameters (cerebral blood flow(CBF), CBV) obtained by CT perfusion(CTP). These results indicate that fNIRs can be used as important reference for PD research.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2360-2364 [Abstract] ( 1670 ) PDF (1766 KB)  ( 494 )
2365 Discrimination of Bamboo Fiber and Ramie Fiber by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
WANG Ge1, HUANG An-min2*, HU Xiao-xia3,CHEN Fu-ming1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2365-03
The research on discrimination of natural bamboo fiber, bamboo pulp fibers and ramie fiber used in textile was demonstrated by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. First, the spectra of three kinds of fiber were scanned by NIR spectrometer. Then, the spectral data were pretreated by first derivatives. In the end, the databases and discriminating model of natural bamboo fiber, bamboo pulp fibers and ramie fiber were built. The kind of unknown fiber can be discriminated by the NIR model. The results indicated that the natural bamboo fiber, bamboo pulp fibers and ramie fiber can been discriminated quickly by NIR spectroscopy without destroying samples.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2365-2367 [Abstract] ( 1117 ) PDF (1676 KB)  ( 387 )
2368 Identification of Musk by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
ZHOU Jian1, 2,JIN Cheng1,LUO Yun1, 3,WU Yan-wen4,LI Jian-yu1,LUO Yong-ming2,XIAO Xiao-he1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2368-04
Standard nature musk and false nature musk were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) combined with derivative spectra in the present article. The main characteristic absorption peaks of musk represented the key components such as macrocyclic ketone (2 923, 2 851 cm-1), polypeptides(1 655, 1 546 cm-1) and steroids (1 400, 1 038 cm-1) respectively. Ensuing from the researches artificial musk and natural musk resemble the exemplar of market nature musk. Particularly, the infrared spectra of samples of natural musk and artificial musk are more similar and hard to be distinguished. In virtue of derivative spectra analysis, the resolution of spectra is advanced; several kinds of standard musk have been differentiated directly and effectively. This method was fast, sensitive, direct and nondestructive, and could be used to identify the source of rare materia medica and distinguish the counterfeits of musk successfully.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2368-2371 [Abstract] ( 1102 ) PDF (1406 KB)  ( 401 )
2372 A New Discrimination Method of Maize Seed Varieties Based on Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
GUO Ting-ting1, 2, WANG Shou-jue1, WANG Hong-wu3,HU Hai-xiao4, AN Dong5, WU Wen-jin5, XIA Wei5, ZHAI Ya-feng6*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2372-05
A new discrimination method for the maize seed varieties based on the near-infrared spectroscopy was proposed. The reflectance spectra of maize seeds were obtained by a FT-NIR spectrometer (12 000-4 000 cm-1). The original spectra data were preprocessed by first derivative method. Then the principal component analysis (PCA) was used to compress the spectra data. The principal components with the cumulate reliabilities more than 80% were used to build the discrimination models. The model was established by Ψ-3 neuron based on biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR). Especially, the parameter of the covering index was proposed to assist to discriminating the variety of a seed sample. The authors tested the discrimination capability of the model through four groups of experiments. There were 10, 18, 26 and 34 varieties training the discrimination models in these experiments, respectively. Additionally, another seven maize varieties and nine wheat varieties were used to test the capability of the models to reject the varieties not participating in training the models. Each group of the experiment was repeated three times by selecting different training samples at random. The correct classification rates of the models in the four-group experiments were above 91.8%. The correct rejection rates for the varieties not participating in training the models all attained above 95%. Furthermore, the performance of the discrimination models did not change obviously when using the different training samples. The results showed that this discrimination method can not only effectively recognize the maize seed varieties, but also reject the varieties not participating in training the model. It may be practical in the discrimination of maize seed varieties.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2372-2376 [Abstract] ( 2062 ) PDF (972 KB)  ( 399 )
2377 Prediction Analysis of Soluble Solids Content and Moisture in Honey by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
LI Shui-fang1, ZHANG Xin2, SHAN Yang2*,LI Zhong-hai1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2377-04
A new method for the analysis of soluble solids content (SSC) in honey by near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was developed, and moisture was also analyzed. The partial least square regression models of SSC and moisture were built for different pretreatments of the raw spectra in different spectral range. Good predictions were always obtained for all models. The best models of SSC and moisture were obtained by using Norris (3,2) smoothing + first derivative + multiplicative signal correction in total spectral range. The coefficient of determination (R2CV) and root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), the coefficient of determination (R2p) and root mean square error of validation sets(RMSEP) were 0.998 6, 0.190, 0.998 5 and 0.127 respectively for SSC, while for moisture they were 0.998 4, 0.187, 0.998 6 and 0.125 respectively. NIR could be used to analyze SSC and moisture in honey. The result of this article was better than that of related documents for moisture.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2377-2380 [Abstract] ( 1704 ) PDF (1174 KB)  ( 393 )
2381 Research on the Blood Components Detecting by Multi-Optical Path Length Spectroscopy Technique
LI Gang1,ZHAO Zhe1,LIU Rui1, 2,WANG Hui-quan1,WU Hong-jie1,LIN Ling1
To discuss the feasibility of using the serum’s multi-optical path length spectroscopy information for measuring the concentration of the human blood components, the automatic micro-displacement measuring device was designed, which can obtain the near-infrared multi-optical path length from 0 to 4.0 mm (interval is 0.2 mm) spectra of 200 serum samples with multi-optical path length spectrum of serum participated in building the quantitative analysis model of four components of the human blood: glucose (GLU),total cholesterol (TC), total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB ), by mean of the significant non-linear spectral characteristic of blood. Partial least square (PLS) was used to set up the calibration models of the multi-optical path length near-infrared absorption spectrum of 160 experimental samples against the biochemical analysis results of them. The blood components of another 40 samples were predicted according to the model. The prediction effect of four blood components was favorable, and the correlation coefficient (r) of predictive value and biochemical analysis value were 0.932 0, 0.971 2, 0.946 2 and 0.948 3, respectively. All of the results proved the feasibility of the multi-optical path length spectroscopy technique for blood components analysis. And this technique established the foundation of detecting the components of blood and other liquid conveniently and rapidly.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2381-2384 [Abstract] ( 1691 ) PDF (1553 KB)  ( 411 )
2385 Increasing the Precision of the Noninvasive Blood Components Measurement Based on DS Method Using Harmonic Waves
LI Gang, WANG Hui-quan, ZHAO Zhe, LIN Ling
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2385-05
To improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the dynamic spectrum (DS) data and to increase the stability of the model and the prediction accuracy, the harmonic waves of DS data were introduced into DS method. Sixty samples were determined as the research objects according to the quality of the pulse wave and the distribution of the harmonic waves after further analysis of 110 volunteers’ data acquired in vivo. This paper took whether adding the energy of harmonic waves into the DS data as the division standard to generate two groups. BP artificial neural network was used to establish the calibration model of subjects’ hemoglobin values against DS. The correlation coefficients of the predicted values and the true values in experimental group, containing the energy of harmonic waves, was 0.91, much higher than 0.80 in the control group. Other indexes were all improved too. The results showed that the modified method can enhance the SNR of DS method and accelerate the development of noninvasive blood components measurement based on DS method.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2385-2389 [Abstract] ( 1106 ) PDF (1929 KB)  ( 405 )
2390 Raman Spectroscopic Study on Silicone Fluid as Pressure Gauge
LIU Jin, SUN Qiang*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2390-03
Within a diamond-anvil cell, the in-situ Raman spectroscopic study of silicone fluid was operated at room temperature 298.1 K and under pressures from 0.1 to 5 140.2 MPa. The present study analyzed the correlation of the modes 2 906 and 2 967 cm-1 with different pressures, indicating that their wavenumbers linearly increased with increasing pressure. Therefore, this provided the potential to consider the pressure medium silicone fluid as a pressure gauge. The result suggested that silicone fluid could be used as a reliable pressure gauge in high-pressure experiments using diamond-anvil cells with Raman spectrometer, and the correlations between pressure and (Δνp)2 906, (Δνp)2 967 are, p=-0.05[(Δνp)2 967]2+73.07(Δνp)2 967+91.54 and p=0.14[(Δνp)2 906]2+81.9(Δνp)2 906+92.01, respectively.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2390-2392 [Abstract] ( 1030 ) PDF (1493 KB)  ( 433 )
2393 Raman Spectroscopy Study on the Interaction of Ginsenoside Rb1 with DPPC Bilayers
HUI Ge1, ZHAO Yu2, ZHANG Wei1, XIE Yun-fei1, YANG Jing-xiu1, ZHAO Da-qing2, ZHAO Bing1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2393-04
In the present work, the authors studied the interaction of ginsenoside Rb1 with lipid bilayers composed of DPPC using Raman spectroscopy. The conformational changes of DPPC molecule were further revealed by analyzing its vibrational modes such as the C—N stretching mode in the polar head-group region (650-850 cm-1), C—C stretching (1 000-1 200 cm-1), and C—H stretching (2 750-3 000 cm-1). The results indicated that there was little influence of Rb1 on the conformation of O—C—C—N+ backbone in the choline group of DPPC bilayers. The polar head group is still extending parallel to the bilayer surface. The intensity ratios I1 096/I1 126 and I1 096/I1 062 represent the gauche/trans ratio. Both of them increased with adding the concentration of Rb1 to DPPC bilayers. The increment of gauche/trans ratio indicates that the disorder/order proportion of the alkyl chains arises. The ordering conformations in lipid chains decreased while the interchain disorder increased. The intensity ratio I2 848/I2 880 in the region of hydrocarbon chain C—H stretching mode reflects phase transition and has been demonstrated as a sensitive parameter of both inter-chain and intra-chain disorder/order intensity ratio in bilayer alkyl chains. The higher the ratio, the more disordered the hydrocarbon chains. Therefore, the increasing ratio I2 848/I2 880 with increasing amount of Rb1 indicates that this drug decreases the intermolecular ordering of the lipid lattice, and simultaneously increases the membrane lipid fluidity. In addition, previous study showed that an electrostatic interaction exists between sphingomyelin bilayers and drugs like scopolamine and anisodamine. Compared with those results, the action mode of ginsenoside Rb1 on DPPC bilayers may be because of hydrogen bonds that can be easily formed for the sugar moieties and the hydroxyls in Rb1 molecule. Therefore, the mechanism of drug action on DPPC bilayers may be resulting from the intra or inter hydrogen bonds and the head-group hydrophilic region of the DPPC membrane.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2393-2396 [Abstract] ( 2013 ) PDF (1384 KB)  ( 434 )
2397 The Difference-Raman Spectra of Fluid Inclusion of Carbonate Reservoir
LI Jing1,2,ZHA Ming1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2397-04
In the present paper, the authors examined some inclusions of carbonate reservoir by microscopic confocal Raman spectral methods. The measurement temperature of sample was 18 ℃, -40 ℃, -80 ℃ and -170 ℃, respectively. The experimental results show that the original experimental spectral curve of the inclusion was very similar to the original experimental spectral curve of pure main mineral (rock core). Because the size of some inclusions was relatively small or inclusions were hidden deeply in the sample, their Raman spectra signals were often buried in other signals (noises) which stem from main mineral. To overcome the above-mentioned difficulty we used the spectral subtraction method. In Raman spectral experimental process, X-Y scanning and depth profile (Z scanning) were finished around the inclusion. The final results show that spectral subtraction method allows the study of solid samples with high precision because some corrections can be made, if additive properties of spectral quantity are satisfied. Interfering spectral signal from main mineral can be removed, and the inclusion spectrum can be purified.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2397-2400 [Abstract] ( 1050 ) PDF (1333 KB)  ( 395 )
2401 Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectra of Rh6G Adsorbed on Ag Nanowire Arrays
SUN Xian-wen, WANG Bei, MO Yu-jun
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2401-04
The degree of order and uniform of substrates is the key to surface-enhanced Raman scattering study. The structure of porous alumina template by anodic oxidation method is ordered and uniform and the template could be used as the substrate of SERS. Nanowire arrays of Ag were fabricated from the template of porous alumina. The authors observed the SERS signals of the Rh6G adsorbed on the Ag nanowire arrays. The results revealed that the SERS intensity depended on the length of the wires that emerged on the surface that was controlled by the etching time, but the frequency was not affected by the surface condition; the results also revealed that PO3-4 can increase the intensity of SERS signals.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2401-2404 [Abstract] ( 1076 ) PDF (1339 KB)  ( 396 )
2405 Study of Mobile Raman Spectroscopy for Rapid Evaluation of Deteriorating of Art Materials under UV Irradiation
LUO Xi-yun1, 2, YE Fei3, WU Lai-ming2, YUAN Sheng-wei1,ZHANG Wei-bing1, DU Yi-ping1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2405-04
Identification and characterization of materials used in cultural heritage and conservation can provide important information for dating, authentication and deteriorating situation in general. How to extract useful information from these materials in-situ is one of the main concerns. Application of mobile Raman spectroscopy for this purpose has great attentions for scientists and conservators. The present paper aims to investigate the mobile Raman spectroscopy in studying the effect of UV light on the deterioration of silk, seal ink and Chinese traditional colorants such as kermes, vermillion and zhubiao, which is commonly appeared on painted works of art, and the silk sample is also often used as an consolidant for repairing destroyed textile objects. Spectra were recorded from predefined regions on the samples before and after ultraviolet radiation with 360 nm wavelength and 0.68 W·m-2 intensity. The result revealed obvious effects of ultraviolet radiation on the materials simulated in this research. The original kind of seal ink has been clearly identified. The changes in spectra of all samples with and without UV radiation were further distinguished and studied. The result will assist for scientists and conservators to determine the safe treatments and suitable enviro nmental condition for storage, display and transport. The result will also help for studying mechanism of deterioration of museum objects influenced by enviro nmental factors. The mobile Raman spectroscopy showed a suitable and convenient means for in-situ non-destructive detection and study of deterioration in practical conditions.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2405-2408 [Abstract] ( 2013 ) PDF (1449 KB)  ( 759 )
2409 Qualitative Analysis of Raman Spectra Based on Pulse Coupled Neural Network
WANG Cheng1, LI Shao-fa1, WU Zheng-jie2, HE Kai1, HUANG Yao-xiong2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2409-04
By studying on pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) and Raman spectra qualitative analysis, a method based on PCNN for Raman spectra qualitative analysis was proposed. After encoding the Raman spectra by using PCNN neurons’ characteristics of fatigue and refractory period, the improved Horspool algorithm was used to match the code corresponding to the detected sample with all of the base code in the database one by one, and then their matching similarity was acquired to determine the sample type. Experimental results and analysis of data proved that the method proposed in this paper is accurate and effective for Raman spectra qualitative analysis. Meanwhile, traditional qualitative analysis method based on spectral template has some deficiencies, like that it is difficult to determine the characteristic peak of the detected sample and the matching analysis process has a high degree of redundancy. While our proposed method not only can avoid these deficiencies very well, but also needs a small amount of data storage. The requirement of the storage space was only 5.8% of that used in the traditional qualitative analysis method based on spectral template.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2409-2412 [Abstract] ( 1033 ) PDF (1319 KB)  ( 735 )
2413 Study on Optical Characteristics of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) In Rainwater by Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix and Absorbance Spectroscopy
CHENG Yuan-yue1,2, GUO Wei-dong2*, LONG Ai-min1, CHEN Shao-yong3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2413-04
The optical characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were determined in rain samples collected in Xiamen Island, during a rainy season in 2007, using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy associated with UV-Vis absorbance spectra. Results showed that the absorbance spectra of CDOM in rain samples decreased exponentially with wavelength. The absorbance coefficient at 300 nm [a(300)] ranged from 0.27 to 3.45 m-1, which would be used as an index of CDOM abundance, and the mean value was 1.08 m-1. The content of earlier stage of precipitation events was higher than that of later stage of precipitation events, which implied that anthropogenic sources or atmospheric pollution or air mass types were important contributors to CDOM levels in precipitation. EEMs spectra showed 4 types of fluorescence signals (2 humic-like fluorescence peaks and 2 protein-like fluorescence peaks) in rainwater samples, and there were significant positive correlations of peak A with C and peak B with S, showing their same sources or some relationship of the two humic-like substance and the two protein-like substance. The strong positive correlations of the two humic-like fluorescence peaks with a(300), suggested that the chromophores responsible for absorbance might be the same as fluorophores responsible for fluorescence. Results showed that the presence of highly absorbing and fluorescing CDOM in rainwater is of significant importance in atmospheric chemistry and might play a previously unrecognized role in the wavelength dependent spectral attenuation of solar radiation by atmospheric waters.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2413-2416 [Abstract] ( 905 ) PDF (1580 KB)  ( 469 )
2417 Spectrometric Investigation of the Antioxidant Activities of Dangcong Tea Aqueous Extracts against DPPH and ABTS Free Radicals
ZHENG Shan-yuan1, CHEN Tian-feng2, 3*, ZHENG Wen-jie2, WONG Yum-shing3*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2417-07
The antioxidant activities of Dangcong tea aqueous extracts against DPPH and ABTS free radicals were evaluated using spectrometric methods. The results show that Dangcong tea aqueous extracts could effectively and rapidly inhibited the formation of ABTS and DPPH free radicals in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating the potent antioxidant activities of Dangcong tea aqueous extracts under both hydrophilic and hydrophobic conditions. In the optimized systems, the IC50 values of Baiye(Ⅰ, Ⅱ) and Fenghuang(Ⅲ, Ⅳ) Dangcong teas against ABTS free radical were 26.9, 25.5, 28.0 and 31.7 μg·mL-1, respectively, which were significantly lower than that of Trolox, the positive control (85.2 μg·mL-1), indicating the higher antioxidant activities of Dangcong teas. For DPPH free radical, the IC50 values for the Dangcong teas (Ⅰ-Ⅳ) were 49.8, 41.6, 47.3 and 64.5 μg·mL-1, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest the potential applications of Dangcong tea as functional food.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2417-2423 [Abstract] ( 2332 ) PDF (3069 KB)  ( 497 )
2424 A New Type of Iridium (Ⅲ) Phenylpyrazole Complexes: Synthesis, Photophysical Characterization
YU Jian-ning1, HAO Yu-ying1*, GUO Xiao-xia1, LEI Li-ping1, XU Hui-xia2, XU Bing-she2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2424-04
New heteroleptic iridium(Ⅲ) complexes (ppz)2Ir(LX), which consist of two cyclometalated ligands ppz(1-phenylpyrazole) together with an ancillary ligand LX (LX= 2-(2’-hydroxylphenyl)benzothiazole (BTZ), 2-(3’-methyl-2’-hydroxylphenyl) benzothiazole (3-MeBTZ), 2-(4’-methyl-2’-hydroxylphenyl) benzothiazole (4-MeBTZ) and 2-(4’-Trifluoromethyl-2’-hydroxylphenyl)benzothiazole (4-tfmBTZ)), were synthesized and characterized. The molecular structures and photophysical properties were characterized and analyzed comparatively. The results show that the four complexes have basically similar UV-Vis absorption spectra, fluorescence excitation and emission spectra. Their maximum emission peaks are located at 583-615 nm, and accompanied by a lower intensity emission band around 400 nm. The weak emissions around 400 nm are ascribed to the radiation transition of single state excition from ancillary ligand BTZ perturbed by metallic ion, and light emission around long-wavelength to the radiation transition of 3MLCT of Ir(BTZ) fragment. While the triplet state 3MLCT of Ir(ppz)2 fragment might be quenched at room temperature. For all complexes, the excitations with maximum efficiency are located at 250-310 nm, which indicates that main contributor to light emitting is ligand-centered absorption(1π—π*) of ppz and BTZ rather than 3MLCT transitions, and thus provides a striking evidence that there is intersystem crossing from 1π—π* state to 3MLCT state in these complexes. Compared with Ir(ppz)3, these complexes not only have stronger phosphorescence at room temperature but also their emission color can be tuned by modifying ancillary ligand.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2424-2427 [Abstract] ( 1637 ) PDF (1474 KB)  ( 392 )
2428 Spectroscopic Studies on Refolding Process in Vitro of Pan-Allergen Profilin in Coco Pollen
LUO Hai-mei1, XIAO Jie1, WU Yu-lan2, LIU Zhi-gang2, Jun Lu3, XU Hong1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2428-05
Recombinant proteins expressed by prokaryotic expression system are normally in the form of inclusion. In the present paper, refolding process of recombinant pan-allergen profilin protein induced by urea has been investigated by using circular dichroism spectra, fluorescence spectra, synchronous fluorescence spectra systematically. And the spectral characteristics of the renaturation were obtained. In addition, bioinformatics methods including predications of secondary and tertiary structures have also been used to explain the spectral characteristics and analyze the conformational changes of the protein during renaturation in vitro. Results from this study should be useful to the establishment of a spectral method examining the extent of protein renaturation, and be helpful to the understanding of the mechanism of renaturation of recombinant protein.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2428-2432 [Abstract] ( 521 ) PDF (1402 KB)  ( 348 )
2433 A Novel Hyperspectra Absorption Enhancing Method Based on Morphological Top-Hat Transformation
LI Hui1, 2, 3, LIN Qi-zhong1, 2, WANG Qin-jun1, 2, LIU Qing-jie1, 2, CHEN Yu1, 3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2433-05
Hyperspectral characteristics analysis of ground features is the basis for applications of high-resolution imaging technology to ground target identification and ground features classification. Based on morphological multi-scale Top-Hat transformation, a novel spectral absorption enhancing algorithms was put forward, which enhanced spectral absorption features while maintaining shape features of the absorption peak bands. Eleven reflectance spectra of different mineral groups were chosen from the mineral spectral library of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and we used a K-means clustering analysis on both the absorption-enhanced spectra and the original reflectance spectra. Results showed that, firstly, clustering groups of the absorption-enhanced spectra (AES) had better similarity within the same clustering group, and greater difference between different groups, furthermore, they were more consistent with the geological background of these minerals compared with clustering result of the original spectra (OS). Secondly, while all the original spectra were re-sampled to their ASTER spectra and the AES clustering result was displayed in the form of ASTER spectra of the minerals, we could easily describe both the representative spectral feature of each clustering group, and the typical spectral differences between every two groups. These fully demonstrate that the absorption-enhanced spectra have enhanced absorption features of the mineral spectra, and improved the separability of hyper-spectra. Accordingly, feature analysis based on absorption enhanced spectra can be used as reference for information extracting based on multi-spectral remote sensing image data, and it is a very useful method of hyperspectral analysis.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2433-2437 [Abstract] ( 606 ) PDF (2016 KB)  ( 350 )
2438 Influence of Petroleum Concentration in Water on Spectral Backscattering Coefficient
SONG Qing-jun1,2,HUANG Miao-fen2,TANG Jun-wu1, WANG Xiao-mei1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2438-05
The petroleum pollutants mixing proportion experiment and in-situ experiment were carried out in the estuary of Panjin, Liaoning province in May 2008 and August 2009. The optical properties and biochemical properties were measured to get the effect of petroleum concentration in water on backscattering coefficients spectrum. The results show that the power-law index of backscattering coefficient decreases as TSM concentration increases and the relationship of these variables follows logarithm mode. Specific backscattering coefficient’s value of 440 to 856 nm is between 0.006 and 0.035 m2·g-1 and decreases as wavelength increases. The petroleum mass-specific backscattering coefficients (backscattering coefficients of unit petroleum concentration) decreases with the wavelength increasing and follows power law for petroleum concentration. Petroleum concentration has little effect on the power-law index of backscattering coefficient.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2438-2442 [Abstract] ( 1089 ) PDF (1343 KB)  ( 375 )
2443 Comparative Research on Light-Induced Surface Electron Behavior of Cobalt Complexes
LI Lei, JIN Jing, SHI Zhong-feng, XING Yong-heng, NIU Shu-yun*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2443-04
Six cobalt complexes, Co(H2O)6·H2btec(1); {[Co2(HCOO)6]·CH3OH}n(2); {[Co(4,4’-bipy)2(H2O)4]·suc·4H2O}n(3); Co(NA)2(H2O)4(4); [Co(mal)(4,4’-bipy)H2O]n(5) and [Co(HCOO)4Co(H2O)4]n(6), were synthesized through hydrothermal method. UV-Vis absorption spectra and surface photovoltage spectra of the complexes were detected and the structures of the complexes were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. There are positive responses in the range of 300-800 nm in the SPS. There are good corresponding relationships between response bands of SPS and absorption peaks of UV-Vis absorption spectra by the comparison. Comparing the SPS of six complexes, the valence, coordination mode and coordination micro-environment affect the position and the shape of the response bands.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2443-2446 [Abstract] ( 1030 ) PDF (1365 KB)  ( 350 )
2447 Nitrogen Status Diagnosis by Using Digital Photography Analysis for Organic Fertilized Maize
SUN Qin-ping, LI Ji-jin*, ZOU Guo-yuan, XIANG Cheng-cai, LUO Yi-ming, LIU Ben-sheng
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2447-04
It need a relative long term for the maize nitrogen status diagnosis with a destroyed samples taking. In the present research, a pot experiment with different organic fertilizer and different fertilizer amount input was conducted to study the possibility of using digital photography analysis technology to monitor the N status of organic fertilized maize at 10 leaves unfold stage. The results showed that the greenness intensity (GI) and redness intensity (RI) from maize canopy image had significant inverse linear correlations with the conventional N diagnosis parameters of SPAD readings, upland biomass and upland N uptake. However the blueness intensity (BI) had no significant correlations with those maize N indexes. The correlation coefficient values (r) were from 0.40 to 0.45 for GI, and from 0.45 to 0.53 for RI. To sum totally, the visible digital image color analysis method can be used for the organic fertilized maize N diagnosis at 10 leaves unfold stage. The redness intensity was a relatively better index than others for the organic fertilized maize N status diagnosis in this experimental condition.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2447-2450 [Abstract] ( 1983 ) PDF (1284 KB)  ( 314 )
2451 Hydrothermal Synthesis and Optical Properties of Full-Color-Emission ZnS∶Cu,Al Nanocrystals
XIN Mei1,CAO Wang-he2, LUO Xi-xian2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2451-05
ZnS∶Cu,Al nanocrystals were synthesized by a hydrothermal method at 200 ℃ and their optical properties were studied. The analysis of XRD and TEM show that the spherical-like nanocrystals had a grain size of approximately 15 nm and were well dispersed, with a zinc blende structure. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic absorption spectrometry were applied to the analysis of S, Zn and Cu content in the sample. The results proved that a large number of zinc vacancies exist and Cu is incorporated into the sample lattice. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra were investigated. The PL mechanism is discussed. The excitation spectrum is broad. Under 337 nm excitation the sample emits bright green light. Under 370-410 nm excitation the sample emits white light. The broad emission spectra are almost coincident with any excitation wavelength of between 370 and 410 nm making them attractive as conversion phosphors for LED applications and full-color fluorescence display devices. The emitted white light under 375 nm excitation was found to be the result of blue, green, and orange emission bands. For Cu/Zn, Cu/Al and S/Zn molar ratios of 3×10-4, 2 and 3, respectively, the near blue white light can be observed with the naked eye in daylight.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2451-2455 [Abstract] ( 203 ) PDF (1849 KB)  ( 379 )
2456 Study on Ammonia-N Degradation Monitoring by Analyzing Long-Period Fiber Grating Spectrum Character
LIU Hong-yue1, LIANG Da-kai1, ZENG Jie1, CAO Zhi-bin2, ZENG Jian-min3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2456-04
In the present paper, the principle of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) ammonia-nitrogen degradation monitoring sensor was discussed in detail firstly based on a sensitive characteristic that the resonance spectrum of long-period fiber grating changes with refractive index in external environment. The relationship between the resonance peaking wavelength of long-period fiber grating and the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions was also analyzed detailedly. Then, the long-period fiber grating spectrum measurement technology was selected to obtain long-period fiber grating spectrum curves corresponding to seven different kinds of concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions, and the resonance wavelengths increased with the increase in the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions. The variations of the resonance wavelength decreased from 2.707 to 0.068 nm and had a relatively good corresponding relationship with the concentration values of ammonia-nitrogen solutions. The responsivity of this correlation is 52.78 pm·mg-1·L. The concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions was acquired exactly through the way of monitoring the changes of the spectrum attribute, at the same time, the process and the extent of ammonia-nitrogen wastewater degradation were estimated. This method, which can directly monitor the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions, is simple and easy to operate. The measurement and transmission section of the system are completely composed of optical fiber, which can avoid the electronic interference. There is no necessary to use chemic reagent to sign the solutions, which are going to be degraded. In conclusion, the late-model long-period fiber grating ammonia-nitrogen degradation monitoring system could achieve a real time, rapid, accurate and long distance measurement.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2456-2459 [Abstract] ( 2458 ) PDF (1540 KB)  ( 750 )
2460 Synthesis and Structure Characterization of Bis(4-Butoxycarbonylaminocyclohexyl)Methane
GAO Wei, ZHAO Xin-qiang*, WANG Jing, AN Hua-liang, JIA Chun-yao, WANG Yan-ji
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2460-04
Bis(4-butoxycarbonylaminocyclohexyl)methane (H12MDU) was prepared using dicyclohexylmethane-4,4’-diisocyanate and 1-butanol as raw materials and two solid products A and B were obtained. The structures of the two solid products were characterized separately by melting point measurement, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, NMR spectrum analysis and mass spectrum analysis. The results show that both A and B are the target products H12MDU. The solid A is trans-trans-H12MDU while the solid B is a mixture including trans-trans-H12MDU and at least one of cis-trans-H12MDU and cis-cis-H12MDU.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2460-2463 [Abstract] ( 1066 ) PDF (1500 KB)  ( 341 )
2464 Retrieval of Tropospheric NO2 by Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy
XU Jin, XIE Pin-hua*, SI Fu-qi, DOU Ke, LI Ang, LIU Yu, LIU Wen-qing
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2464-06
A method of retrieving NO2 in troposphere based on Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy(MAX-DOAS) was introduced. The differential slant column density (dSCD) of NO2 was evaluated by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS), removing the Fraunhofer structure and Ring effect. Combining the results of different observing directions, the tropospheric NO2 differential slant column density (ΔSCD) was evaluated, and the air mass factor (AMF) was calculated with the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN and the tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) was retrieved. To ensure the accuracy of the results, it was compared with the results of long path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS), a good accordance was shown with the correlation coefficients of 0.940 27 and 0.969 24.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2464-2469 [Abstract] ( 1662 ) PDF (2877 KB)  ( 382 )
2470 Study on the Relation between Fraction Cover and Mixed Spectra in Karst Enviroment
LIU Bo1,YUE Yue-min2,5,LI Ru3,WANG Ke-lin4,ZHANG Bing4,TONG Qing-xi1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2470-05
Karst rocky desertification is one of the most serious eco-environmental problems of land degradation in karst regions, Southwest China. The fractional cover of vegetation and exposed bedrock are the main land surface symptoms and essential assessing indicators of karst rocky desertification. To assess the extent of rocky desertification in complex karst environments, the information of multiple land cover types fraction is needed. Based on in situ spectral reflectance data, this study proposed several spectral indices and explored the relationship between spectral features of main land cover types and their responding fractional cover. The results showed that spectral indices have much higher correlation coefficients with fractional cover than does spectral reflectance. Vegetation indices have good linear relation with fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation(PV). The proposed spectral indices have high correlation coefficients with fractional cover of non-photosynthetic vegetation(NPV) and bare soil, with R2 0.70 and 0.73, respectively. Lower correlation coefficients(R2=0.55) with the factional cover of exposed bedrock, were observed. The absorption depth of four forms of the proposed indices has the highest correlation coefficient with the fractional cover of NPV, bare soil, and exposed rock. This study indicates that hyperspectral remote sensing has the potential for the extraction of karst rocky desertification information.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2470-2474 [Abstract] ( 2482 ) PDF (1191 KB)  ( 403 )
2475 Study on Method of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectra for Rare Fluorescence Chelate
LI Yun-hui1, DI Yan-qing1, YANG Xiu-yun1, PAN Li-hua2*, LI Jun-ling2, WANG Yun-lei2, LI Hai-yan1, CHANG Yu2, LIU Wen-yu1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2475-04
In the present paper, the technology of time-resolved fluorescence spectra was investigated in order to improve the sensitivity of the solid-phase time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay. The fluorescence properties,fluorescence intensity and detection method of the novel complexes 4,4′-dibromo-6,6′-bis(N,N-bis(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)amino methyl)-2,2′-bipyridine were investigated through self-developed solid-phase time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay instrument. At the same time, the Eu-TTA-phen and Eu-β-NTA-TOPO series of Eu(Ⅲ) compounds were detected.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2475-2478 [Abstract] ( 1047 ) PDF (1264 KB)  ( 395 )
2479 Study on a Model Predicting Fertilization Nitrogen Content in Hydroponic Cultivation of Tomato by Near Infrared Spectrum
HAN Xiao-ping1, ZUO Yue-ming1*,LI Ling-zhi2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2479-05
It was successful to denoise the spectrum signal within visual wave band (350-560 nm) by wavelet transformation, to extract the folic acid characteristic wavelength 366 nm and some character wavelengths with relation to chlorophyll at 380,414,437 and 554 nm. In the range from 560 to 2 500 nm, after denoising, the biggest error was smaller than 1.47%, while at the peak or vale of character wavelength the biggest error was smaller than 0.11%. Moreover,the model was established based on the denoised data acquired with aid of plant probe. The model was also based on BP neural network and for predicting the nitrogen content in nutrient solution in hydroponic cultivation of tomato. The results showed that the predicting model,which used the values of absorbance at 554,673,1 440 and 1 940 nm as input variables of BP neural network,had a very good forecasting accuracy and great potential to be used practically.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2479-2483 [Abstract] ( 1945 ) PDF (1536 KB)  ( 586 )
2484 Sorts and Disaccharide Composition Analysis of Glycosaminoglycans from Rat Kidney
WANG Hao, YU Guang-li*, ZHAO Xia, HAO Cui, LI Guang-sheng, WANG Pei-pei
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2484-04
Glycosaminoglycans(GAGs) were extracted and purified from Wistar rat kidneys by two-step enzymatic hydrolysis and ion exchange chromatography. The sorts of GAGs were identified by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membrane and separated on a weak anion-exchange column. Those purified GAGs were further totally hydrolyzed with specific glycosaminoglycan lyases. Their disaccharides composition and fine structures were analyzed with SAX-HPLC. The results indicated that GAGs in rat kindeys were mainly composed of heparan sulfate and small amount of dermatan sulfate. Eight kinds of disaccharides were found in heparan sulfate, and the content of acetyl-containing disaccharides was 77.6%, while nonsulfated disaccharides were 59.7%. In dermatan sulfate, six kinds of disaccharides were found. The content of monosulfated disaccharides was 49.8%, and nonsulfated disaccharides were 32.9%.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2484-2487 [Abstract] ( 1513 ) PDF (1384 KB)  ( 360 )
2488 Detection of Corn Chlorophyll Content Using Canopy Spectral Reflectance
SUN Hong, LI Min-zan*, ZHANG Yan-e, ZHAO Yong, WANG Hai-hua
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2488-05
The canopy spectral reflectance and chlorophyll content of corn were measured and analyzed under different nitrogen treatments. The correlation between spectral reflectance and chlorophyll content was discussed based on different growth stages and different nitrogen levels. The results showed positive correlations under high and normal nitrogen treatment, while negative correlation under low nitrogen treatment. The relation between reflectance of normal fertilizer region and chlorophyll content was better than others, with rNormalrHighrLow. Normal fertilizer was the best condition to detect the corn chlorophyll content using spectral reflectance. Analysis of the relations at different growth stages showed that on the band of 400-1 000 nm the absolute value of correlation coefficient increased and reached the maximum at shooting stage, it decreased until anthesis-silking stage, and then rebounded at milking stage. The positive correlations were found at shooting and milking stage, while negative correlations were found at seedling, trumpet and anthesis-silking stage. It was indicated that the sensitive stages to detect the chlorophyll content were shooting and trumpet stage with high absolute value of correlation coefficient above 0.6 around 550 nm. In order to detect the chlorophyll content of corn, 558, 667, 714 and 912 nm were selected to establish the MLR model and PLSR model. The results showed that PLSR was more capable of building chlorophyll content models reflecting correct relations among multi-variables compared with MLR. In the meanwhile, three wavelengths were selected (558, 667 and 714 nm) to build different vegetation indices such as GDVI, GRVI, GNDVI, DVI, RVI and NDVI. The correlation between DVI and chlorophyll content was better than others and DVI was used to establish binomial model and exponential model at shooting stage (R2=0.80) and trumpet stage (R2=0.66) respectively which was higher than PLSR. It also provided a feasible method to detect chlorophyll content non-destructively.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2488-2492 [Abstract] ( 561 ) PDF (1284 KB)  ( 398 )
2493 Nondestructive Examination of Tomato Chilling Injury by Ultraweak Luminescence
ZHAO Dan-ying1,2, SHENG Ji-ping1,3*, DING Yang1, SHEN Lin1, FAN Bei3, LIU Can1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2493-03
Ultraweak luminescence (UWL) is an universal phenomenon of photons emission in living organism. It is intrinsically connected with biological processes, and it closely links with biochemical, physiological and pathological conditions in organisms under stress. UWL testing is widely used in clinical medicine, agriculture, environmental protection and food industry etc. But it was not applied in testing physiological disease of agricultural product in storage. This study used tomato fruit as material to find rule of UWL in fruits under chilling stress, which is the main problem in tomato fruit storage. To obtain fruits with different chilling injury degree, before cold storage a group of fruits were treated with cold shock, the effective method to decrease chilling injury, which showed alleviative chilling injury symptom compared with untreated fruits. It was found that UWL rose with the degree of chilling injury, furthermore UWL went up remarkably (P<0.01) before symptom of chilling injury happening. Correlation analysis between UWL and chilling injury rate and chilling injury index showed that correlation coefficient was 0.901 6 and 0.957 7(P<0.01)respectively. In conclusion, UWL could factually reflect the degree of chilling injury.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2493-2495 [Abstract] ( 1593 ) PDF (1285 KB)  ( 372 )
2496 Determination of Dynamic Viscosity of Automobile Lubricant Using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy
ZHAO Yun1, 2, JIANG Lu-lu3, ZHANG Yu3, TAN Li-hong3, HE Yong1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2496-04
Visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was applied for the fast determination of dynamic viscosity of automobile lubricant. One hundred fifty samples from 5 brands were collected for Vis/NIR spectral scanning. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was applied as calibration method after preprocessing stage as well as a way to extract the first 6 principal components which were used as the input data matrix of least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) to develop the LS-SVM models. Radial basis function was used as core function with γ equal to 27.321 2 and σ2 equal to 3.229 5. The calibration set was composed of 125 samples, whereas 25 samples were in the validation set. The results indicated that LS-SVM model achieved the best prediction performance. A new process is proposed in this paper for determination of dynamic viscosity of automobile lubricant.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2496-2499 [Abstract] ( 1517 ) PDF (1210 KB)  ( 405 )
2500 Analysis of Spectral Features Based on Water Content of Desert Vegetation
ZHAO Zhao1,LI Xia1*,YIN Ye-biao2,TANG Jin1,ZHOU Sheng-bin3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2500-04
By using HR-768 field-portable spectroradiometer made by the Spectra Vista Corporation(SVC) of America, the hyper-spectral data of nine types of desert plants were measured, and the water content of corresponding vegetation was determined by roasting in lab. The continuum of measured hyperspectral data was removed by using ENVI, and the relationship between the water content of vegetation and the reflectance spectrum was analyzed by using correlation coefficient method. The result shows that the correlation between the bands from 978 to 1 030 nm and water content of vegetation is weak while it is better for the bands from 1 133 to 1 266 nm. The bands from 1 374 to 1 534 nm are the characteristic bands because of the correlation between them and water content is the best. By using cluster analysis and according to the water content, the vegetation could be marked off into three grades: high (>70%), medium (50%-70%) and low (<50%). The research reveals the relationship between water content of desert vegetation and hyperspectral data, and provides basis for the analysis of area in desert and the monitoring of desert vegetation by using remote sensing data.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2500-2503 [Abstract] ( 199 ) PDF (1576 KB)  ( 750 )
2504 Studies on the Spectrum of Tea Seed Oily Properties
SHI Yun-dong1, JIA Lin1, LI Xiang2, MA Jian-zhong2, LIU Fei1, SHEN Tai-bo1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2504-04
The fatty acid composition of Pu’er tea seed oil from Simao region was determined by gas chromatography. It was found that the quality fraction of oleic acid in Pu’er tea seed oil is higher than in peanut oil and rapeseed oil, and lower than in camellia seed oil and olive oil, and the quality fraction of erucic acid in Pu’er tea seed oil is lower than in peanut oil, rapeseed oil and camellia seed oil, while slightly higher than in olive oil. Therefore, Pu’er fruit tea is an ideal oil resource. At the same time 30 kinds of volatile compounds in Pu’er tea seed oil were identified by gas - chromatography-mass spectrometry. They are mostly alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters, and most of these compounds contain unsaturated bond. The relatively domestic reports are rare.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2504-2507 [Abstract] ( 999 ) PDF (1092 KB)  ( 328 )
2508 Hyperspectral Remote Sensing in Monitoring the Vegetation Heavy Metal Pollution
LI Na1, Lü Jian-sheng2*, Altermann W1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2508-04
Mine exploitation aggravates the environment pollution. The large amount of heavy metal element in the drainage of slag from the mine pollutes the soil seriously, doing harm to the vegetation growing and human health. The investigation of mining environment pollution is urgent, in which remote sensing, as a new technique, helps a lot. In the present paper, copper mine in Dexing was selected as the study area and China sumac as the study plant. Samples and spectral data in field were gathered and analyzed in lab. The regression model from spectral characteristics for heavy metal content was built, and the feasibility of hyperspectral remote sensing in environment pollution monitoring was testified.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2508-2511 [Abstract] ( 161 ) PDF (1152 KB)  ( 396 )
2512 Studies and Application of Flow Injection Chemiluminescence in Analytical Chemistry
ZHAO Yan-fang, ZHANG Nuo, WEI Qin*, HAN Yan-yan, MAO Ke-xia, CAI Yan-yan, LI Ru
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2512-06
At present, flow-injection chemiluminescence is of high sensitivity, fast analysis, low cost, wide linear response range, and simplified operation for trace analysis, and makes a feature of fast development and wide application. As a trace analysis method, it is infiltrated in diverse areas. The principle and characteristics of flow-injection chemiluminescence were expounded, and the chemiluminescence systems were introduced in detail in the present article. The research developments, which were mainly about drug analysis, environment monitoring and life sciences examination, were summarized, at home and abroad. The application situations of the method were briefed from aspects of determination of sample, the reaction medium, chemiluminescence systems, the linearity range, and the detection limit. Finally, the author proposed suggestions in view of this method to address the ongoing problems, and prospected broad application of flowing injection chemiluminescence in drug analysis, immunoassay, mineralogical analysis, environment monitoring, clinical medicine and life sciences.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2512-2517 [Abstract] ( 1096 ) PDF (1119 KB)  ( 438 )
2518 Cross-Comparison between ASTER and Landsat-7 ETM+ Multispectral Imagery
LI Chun-hua1,2, XU Han-qiu1*, CHEN Li-cong3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2518-07
Up to present, no study has been published with respect to the cross-comparison between ASTER and Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery. Therefore, the present paper has implemented the complementary study on the images between these two sensors. The study firstly conducted the sensors characteristics comparison, including orbit characteristic, sensor scanning mode and imagery spectral characteristic. Further comparison was implemented to get the relation equations between corresponding V-NIR and SWIR bands of these two sensors based on the apparent reflectance of the three pairs of synchronization images and large common ground regions. The validation has been done to verify the effectiveness of the proposed corresponding bands relation equations and matching coefficients. The result shows that the provided relation equations have high accuracy.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2518-2524 [Abstract] ( 2177 ) PDF (2386 KB)  ( 390 )
2525 Room Temperature Ultraviolet Stimulated Emission of ZnO Nanocrystals
JIA Ji-kuo1, LUO Li1*, ZHANG Wei1, HUANG Fang-ying1, DAI Qiang-qin1, DING Cai-rong2, WANG He-zhou2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2525-04
The characteristics of the exciton in ZnO is essential to the development of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices, therefore it is critical to study the optical properties of exciton and transition process in ZnO quantum dot. In the present work, zinc oxide nanocrystals were prepared by the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that they have a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The pumping power dependent UV emission and their dynamics were studied, the spontaneous emission of the free exciton and the stimulated emission due to exciton-exciton collision and electron hole plasmon were observed, and the pumping-power dependent dynamics was reported for the first time. This is helpful for us to understand the near-band-edge excitonic emission, and might be valuable in the realization of semiconductor UV diode.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2525-2528 [Abstract] ( 1557 ) PDF (1379 KB)  ( 393 )
2529 Atmospheric Adjacency Effect Correction of ETM Images
LIU Cheng-yu1, CHEN Chun1*, ZHANG Shu-qing2,GAO Ji-yue1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2529-04
It is an important precondition to retrieve the ground surface reflectance exactly for improving the subsequent product of remote sensing images and the quantitative application of remote sensing. However, because the electromagnetic wave is scattered by the atmosphere during its transmission from the ground surface to the sensor, the electromagnetic wave signal of the target received by the sensor contained the signal of the background. The adjacency effect emerges. Because of the adjacency effect, the remote sensing images become blurry, and their contrast reduces. So the ground surface reflectance retrieved from the remote sensing images is also inaccurate. Finally, the quality of subsequent product of remote sensing images and the accuracy of quantitative application of remote sensing might decrease. In the present paper, according to the radiative transfer equation, the atmospheric adjacency effect correction experiment of ETM images was carried out by using the point spread function method. The result of the experiment indicated that the contrast of the corrected ETM images increased, and the ground surface reflectance retrieved from those images was more accurate.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2529-2532 [Abstract] ( 1068 ) PDF (1237 KB)  ( 716 )
2533 Tree-Crown Information Extraction of Farmland Returned to Forests Using QuickBird Image Based on Object-Oriented Approach
WU Jian, PENG Dao-li*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2533-04
The improvement of segmentation algorithm and the optimization of feature space are the key factors of improving the accuracy of tree-crown information extraction, and are also the urgent problems of tree-crown information extraction using high resolution images. In the present study, the spectral threshold method was used on the first-class segmentation of QuickBird multi-spectral image to obtain vegetation regions. On the second-class segmentation, the improved algorithm based on edge was used to segment the panchromatic image, which was processed by the non-linear filtering. Afterwards, the feature space consisting of spectrum, shape and texture features was selected to extract tree-crown information. Finally, 300 random samples and an error matrix were applied to undertake the accuracy assessment of identification. Although errors and confusion exist, this method shows satisfying results with an overall accuracy of 84.67% and a KAPPA coefficient of 0.795 3. The corresponding results of the traditional method are 67.67% and 0.627 3. The method in this paper can achieve a more precise information extraction of the tree-crown and the results can meet the demand of accurate monitoring and decision-making.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2533-2536 [Abstract] ( 1542 ) PDF (1320 KB)  ( 714 )
2537 Ab initio Calculations of Vibrational Frequencies and Structures of Ion Pairs of Perchlorate
XUAN Xiao-peng,XIE You-hai,ZHAO Yang
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2537-04
Ion association of solutions of lithium perchlorate in N,N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, methyl acetate and other organic solvents have been investigated by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The spectroscopically free ion, contact ion pair and dimer are fingerprint by the curve fitting of ν1 band of. The most stable geometries of contact ion pairs and dimmer, and the vibrational frequencies were optimized and calculated using the ab initio methods. The comparison between calculated and experimental data of band position was made. Effect of solvation mode and solvent molecule on the vibrational frequencies of ion pairs was also indicated.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2537-2540 [Abstract] ( 989 ) PDF (1288 KB)  ( 340 )
2541 Verification of Ballast Water Exchange for International Ships Anchored in Xiamen Port by CDOM Tracer
LI Chao, ZHANG Yan-po, GUO Wei-dong*, ZHU Yue, XU Jing, DENG Xun
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2541-05
Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) and absorption spectroscopy were applied to study the optical properties of 29 CDOM samples collected from different ballast tanks of nine international route vessels anchored in Xiamen Port between October 2007 and April 2008. The purpose was to examine the feasibility of these spectral properties as a tracer to verify if these vessels follow the mid-ocean ballast water exchange (BWE) regulation. Using parallel factor analysis, four fluorescent components were identified, including two humic-like components (C1: 245,300/386 nm; C2: 250,345/458 nm) and two protein-like components (C3: 220,275/306 nm; C4: 235,290/345 nm), of which C2 component was the suitable fluorescence verification indicator. The vertical distribution of all fluorescent components in ballast tank was nearly similar indicating that profile-mixing sampling was preferable. Combined use of C2 component, spectral slope ratio (SR) of absorption spectroscopy and salinity may provide reasonable verification if BWE carried out by these nine ships. The results suggested that the combined use of multiple parameters (fluorescence, absorption and salinity) would be much reliable to determine the origin of ballast water, and to provide the technical guarantee for fast examination of ballast water exchange in Chinese ports.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2541-2545 [Abstract] ( 2309 ) PDF (2420 KB)  ( 396 )
2546 Design and Application of Noninvasive Tissue Recognition Imaging in Tomography of Human Skin and Crystal Structure
YANG Bor-wen1, YANG Pao-keng1, CHANG Yuan-shuo2, CHEN Xin-chang2, SHIH Wen-tse1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2546-04
Cosmetic industry grows fast in recent years. To reveal the image of dermal structure, it is necessary to apply three-dimensional medical imaging technology. To reduce the invasiveness of laser source on tissues, tissue recognition imaging is proposed to retrieve the intrinsic optical property, namely, the reflection spectrum of every scanned point for imaging. The reflection spectra of main kinds of skin tissue, such as melanin, collagen and hemoglobin, were established as reference database. Broad-band rays were then employed to derive the reflection spectrum of each scanned sample element; the tissue type of the scanned point was identified by cross-correlation of the derived spectrum and the database. In imaging program, all scanned points were filled in with their corresponding tissue color, e.g. black for melanin, white for collagen, or red for hemoglobin, and finally the colored skin tomography resulted. Tissue recognition imaging has merits of easy configuration, low cost, color imaging, high resolution and real non-invasiveness. Substituting LED modules for its spectrometer, tissue recognition imaging is promising to be miniaturized as personal and portable skincare devices, which have great potential in future cosmetic market.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2546-2549 [Abstract] ( 1003 ) PDF (1343 KB)  ( 324 )
2550 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Antigenicity and Conformation of Peanut Allergen Ara h 2
HU Chun-qiu1, 2, GAO Jin-yan1, 3, CHEN Hong-bing1, 2*, LUO Chun-ping1, 2, YAN Fei1, 2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2550-05
Peanut allergen Ara h 2 was extracted from peanuts and was identified by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Effect of heat treatment on the antigenicity and structure of Ara h 2 was measured by indirect ELISA, CD, fluorescence and UV absorption spectra. The results showed that the antigenicity of Ara h 2 had a slight increase after being heated at 55 or 70 ℃, while above 85 ℃ the antigenicity decreased significantly, and the antigeicity of Ara h 2 decreased with increasing temperature. The CD showed that the secondary structure of Ara h 2 was changed after heat treatment. The ANS fluorescence probe emission spectra analysis demonstrated that the heat treatment induced an increase in surface hydrophobicity of Ara h 2. The UV absorption spectra showed that the absorption maximum wavelength was increased when Ara h 2 was heated except the sample heating at 50 ℃ for 30 min. So the changes in conformation of Ara h 2 lead to the antigenicity degression.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2550-2554 [Abstract] ( 558 ) PDF (1774 KB)  ( 426 )
2555 Humidity-Induced Spectral Shift in a Cross-Dispersion Echelle Spectrometer and Its Theoretical Investigation
LIU Ke-ling1, HUANG Mao2, Hieftje Gary M3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2555-05
The relationship between ambient relative humidity H and the position shift of a spectral line was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. An echelle-based ICP emission spectrometer equipped with a CID detector was used for experimental verification of the derived model. The shift of a spectral line is quantitatively described by two defined spectral shift functions: Δλx(x, λ, H) (in the x direction of the CID detector) and Δλy(y, λ, H) (in the y direction of the CID detector). Experimental results indicate that Δλx(x, λ, H) does not change with a variation in ambient relative humidity, but Δλy(y, λ, H) does. A spectral shift equation, i.e. an empirical second-order polynomial equation, can be used to describe the relationship between Δλy(y, λ, H) and H. Based on the classical dipole model, classical mechanics and electrodynamics the empirical spectral-shift equation involving Δλy(y, λ, H) and H was theoretically deduced. The theoretical result is in good agreement with the experimental findings. The theoretical results indicate that the coefficients of the empirical spectral-shift equation are related to the basic physical parameters of materials and the geometric configuration of the echelle CID ICP-AES, and also provide physical meaning to the coefficients of the empirical shift equation obtained experimentally.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2555-2559 [Abstract] ( 1146 ) PDF (1234 KB)  ( 310 )
2560 Study on Microwave Digestion of Gypsum for the Determination of Multielement by ICP-OES and ICP-MS
WANG Hui, SONG Qiang, YANG Rui-ming, YAO Qiang, CHEN Chang-he
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2560-04
Three acids (HNO3,HNO3/HF and HNO3/HF+H3BO3) were used to decompose gypsum with microwave digestion system. The contents of 10 mineral elements (Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, K, Na, S, Ti, Si and Sr) in gypsum were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) while 6 heavy metals (V, Cr, Mn, Zn, Se and Ce) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). GBW03109a, GBW03110 and FGD-2 were used as gypsum standard reference materials. The results showed that two-step microwave digestion with HNO3/HF at 210 ℃ and then adding H3BO3 for the removal of HF and fluorides completely decomposed the gypsums, while this method achieved good recoveries for all elements in the three gypsum standard reference materials. The recovery was from 88% to 112% and the RSD of tests was below 3%. The method was applied to the elemental analysis for flue gas desulfurization gypsums from three coal-fired power plants.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2560-2563 [Abstract] ( 1240 ) PDF (1227 KB)  ( 453 )
2564 Optimal Operating Condition of ICP-AES for Determination of Soil Nutrients Extracted by Mehlich 3 Through Solution Simulation
WANG Xiao-li, CUI Jian-yu, TANG Ao-han, HAN Wen-xuan*, JIANG Rong-feng
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2564-03
As a key process of fertilization with soil test, the determination of soil effective nutrients has received great attention in recent years. Based on a series of standard solution mixtures, which simulate the soil nutrients extracted by Mehlich 3 (M3) reagent, the optimal operating condition of ICP-AES was explored in a systematic way. The results show that the 20 key nutrient elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Al, B, Mo, S, Si, Se, and As) in the solutions can be determined correctly and proficiently when ICP-AES is set at 0.80 L·min-1 of carrier gas flux, with observation height 15 mm and power 1 200 W. This study supplies a primary experimental foundation for establishing the determination technique of essential nutrient elements, extracted from soils in China with the general soil-nutrient extractant M3 reagent.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2564-2566 [Abstract] ( 389 ) PDF (1038 KB)  ( 391 )
2567 Research on Total Arsenic Absorption of Tetrahymena Pyriformis Exposed to Arsanilic Acid Feed Additive and Its Environmental Degradation Products by HG-AFS
HAN Jing-jing1, XU Fang1*, SUN Qun2, BIAN Jing1, LI Ling-hui3
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2567-04
In the present paper, a model based on the arsenic absorption of the unicellular microorganism tetrahymena pyriformis from the incubation aqueous solution of feed additive arsanilic acid and its degradation products As(Ⅲ) and As(Ⅴ) was established for the investigation of the environmental impacts of feed additive arsanilic acid on the living organisms. The tetrahymena pyriformis was incubated in the incubation aqueous solution and its degradation products for 72 h, after cleaning to remove the incubation aqueous solution, the cell was broken up and separated. The cell membrane and cytoplasm were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid separately. A method of arsine generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry was used for the determination of the absorbed arsenic. Experimental findings illustrate that arsenilic acid and its degradation products As(Ⅲ) and As(Ⅴ) can be absorbed by the cell membrane then enter into cytoplasm. In addition, the degradation products As(Ⅲ) and As(Ⅴ) would more easily be absorbed than the arsanilic acid. The living organisms would be poisoned via the As absorption of the cells.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2567-2570 [Abstract] ( 1095 ) PDF (1255 KB)  ( 414 )
2571 Principal Component Analysis of Nutrients in Five Varieties of Velvet Antler (Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum)
ZHAO Lei1, LI Ji-hai2, ZHU Da-zhou3, JI Bao-ping1*
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2571-05
Studies were carried out by basically analyzing the contents of conventional ingredients, inorganic elements and amino acids of five varieties of velvet antler. The contents of inorganic elements in velvet antler samples were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The contents of amino acids in velvet antler samples were determined by spectrophotometry after being separated by an amino acid analyzer. The principal component analysis was applied to the study of characteristic elements in velvet antler. The results showed that crude protein, Ca, P, Na, Ba, Sr, glutamate and glycine are the characteristic elements in velvet antler. Velvet antlers (Cervus nippon Temminck and Elaphodus davidianus) were differentiated from others by the score plot of inorganic elements for five varieties of velvet antler samples. However, according to the score plots of conventional ingredients and amino acids, no differences were found among the five varieties of velvet antler samples. The similarities and differences of nutrients in velvet antlers were revealed by principal component analysis. All these data would provide important evidence for further exploitation of velvet antler.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2571-2575 [Abstract] ( 479 ) PDF (1683 KB)  ( 846 )
2576 Applacation of Portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer in Chemical Composition Analysis of Chinese Ancient Glass
LIU Song1,LI Qing-hui1*,GAN Fu-xi1,2,GU Dong-hong1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2576-05
Chemical composition is one of the most important aspects in the study of Chinese ancient glasses, as it could provide scientific proofs for the technical origin and development of Chinese ancient glasses. It is very necessary to find out some new analyzing techniques. One of the most remarkable advantages for portable X-ray fluorescence technique is its portability, which allows antiques that can’t be allowed to move out of museum to be analyzed. The basic principles, performances and analysis process of the equipment that was improved by OURSTEX company and Center of Sci-tech Archaeology of Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics are presented in detail. Some examples for the application of portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in chemical composition analysis of Chinese ancient glass samples excavated from Xinjiang province are also given. The results are compared with that determined by the proton induced X-ray fluorescence technique. There is a potential application for portable X-ray fluorescence technique in on site analysis.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2576-2580 [Abstract] ( 2197 ) PDF (1238 KB)  ( 407 )
2581 Study on the Method of Selecting Hadamard Spectrophotometer’s Multi-Slits
FAN Yu1,2,WU Yi-hui1,XUAN Ming1,ZHANG Ping1,ZHOU Lian-qun1,2,LIU Yong-shun1,2
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2581-05
In order to realize high throughput of Hadamard spectrometer, the performance of four Hadamard S slits are compared. Multi-micro-silicon slits were produced by MEMS technique. Based on diffraction theory, the formula with Hadamard S matrix is presented. The phenomenon of diffraction is analyzed by using the software of Matlab. The comparison was made between the Matlab simulating picture and the actual diffract picture of S slits on throughput. Experiment results indicate the precisions of the system. The influence of the factors such as spot distance, slit dimension and the matrix array on the throughput was analyzed, then the diffracting way of S slit was offered. The results of emulation are consistent with test, and proved that the design method on the slit in the paper is right. The way of analysis can provide some theoretic and application foundations for slit design.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2581-2585 [Abstract] ( 1339 ) PDF (1858 KB)  ( 344 )
2586 Development of a Multi-Spectra Based Portable Water Quality Analyzer
MU Hai-yang1,2, LI Yan-jun2*, SHAN Zhan-hu1, WU Tie-jun1
DOI: 10.3964/j.issn.1000-0593(2010)09-2586-05
A novel portable multi-parameter water quality analyzer was developed based on the multi-spectra information fusion theory. The analysis method, hardware structures, working principles and software functions are described in the present paper. As a small size, rapid testing and outdoor green instrument, this analyzer can be used to measure six water organic pollution indicators, including TOC, COD, etc., through analyzing the spectra of a small amount of water sample without any chemical reagent. The practical water analysis experiments showed that the multi-spectra fusion method used by this analyzer possesses a higher measurement precision than that of the UV spectral analysis method, which is popularly used by the water quality analyzers in the market.
2010 Vol. 30 (09): 2586-2590 [Abstract] ( 1108 ) PDF (1892 KB)  ( 803 )